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For other leagues with the same name, please see Western Hockey League.

Canadian Major Junior Outline

Western Hockey League (junior)
2021-22 WHL season
Western Hockey League.png
Sport Ice hockey
Founded 1966
No. of teams 22
Country(ies) Flag of Canada Canada (17 teams)
Flag of the United States United States (5 teams)
Most recent champion(s) Swift Current Broncos (2018)
Most championship(s) Kamloops Blazers (6)
Official website

The Western Hockey League (WHL) is a major junior ice hockey league based in Western Canada and the Pacific Northwest of the United States. The WHL is one of three leagues that constitute the Canadian Hockey League (CHL) as the highest level of junior hockey in Canada. Teams play for the Ed Chynoweth Cup, with the winner moving on to play for the Memorial Cup, Canada's national junior championship.

The WHL was founded in 1966 with seven teams in Saskatchewan and Alberta. It is the brainchild of Bill Hunter, who intended to build a western league capable of competing with the top leagues in Ontario and Quebec. Originally considered an "outlaw league" by the Canadian Amateur Hockey Association, the WHL was sanctioned as the top junior league in Western Canada when junior hockey was reorganized in 1970. WHL teams have won the Memorial Cup 18 times since the league became eligible to compete for the trophy.

Today, the WHL comprises 22 teams, divided into two conferences of two divisions. The Eastern Conference comprises 12 teams from Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and British Columbia, while the Western Conference comprises ten teams from British Columbia, Washington State and Oregon.


See also: Timeline of WHL history

Despite winning the 1966 Memorial Cup, the Edmonton Oil Kings' owner, Bill Hunter, was growing concerned about the state of junior hockey in western Canada. Each of the West's four provinces had its own junior league, and Hunter felt that this put them at a disadvantage when competing nationally against the powerful leagues in Ontario and Quebec. Desiring stronger competition, Hunter's Oil Kings competed in the Alberta Senior Hockey League rather than the Alberta Junior Hockey League.

The Canadian Amateur Hockey Association (CAHA) informed the Oil Kings that they were required to play in a junior hockey league for the 1966–67 season or would be held ineligible to compete for the Memorial Cup. This led Hunter to form a new league with five former members of the Saskatchewan Junior Hockey League (SJHL), the Estevan Bruins, Regina Pats, Saskatoon Blades, Moose Jaw Canucks, and Weyburn Red Wings, to leave the SJHL and join the Oil Kings and the Calgary Buffaloes in a new league known as the Canadian Major Junior Hockey League. Despite concerns that this new league would see the demise of the Alberta and Saskatchewan leagues, the governing bodies in both provinces sanctioned the new league. The CAHA did not, however, declaring the CMJHL to be an "outlaw league" and suspending all teams and players from participation in CAHA sanctioned events.[1] The new league accused the CAHA of overstepping its boundaries and with the support of the players and their families, chose to play the season regardless.[2]

The CMJHL renamed itself the Western Canada Hockey League in 1967, adding four new teams to total 11 as the league stretched east into Manitoba. Concerns over the WCHL's relationship with the CAHA led the Pats, Canucks and Red Wings to withdraw before the 1968–69 season, returning to the SJHL. When the CAHA reorganized junior hockey in 1971, it named the WCHL one of three Tier I Major-Junior leagues, along with the Ontario Hockey Association's Tier I division (now the Ontario Hockey League) and the Quebec Major Junior Hockey League.

Early years

Bobby Clarke's Bombers jersey on display at the 2007 Memorial Cup in Vancouver.

The first decade of the WCHL saw constant expansion and franchise movement as the league spread throughout the West. The Flin Flon Bombers became the league's first powerhouse team, led by future NHL stars Bobby Clarke and Reggie Leach. The Brandon Wheat Kings and Swift Current Broncos joined in 1967, the Medicine Hat Tigers in 1970. The WCHL truly became a western league in 1971 when Estevan moved to B.C. to become the New Westminster Bruins, joined by expansion franchises the Victoria Cougars and Vancouver Nats.

In the mid 1970s, the New Westminster Bruins became the WCHL's first true dynasty, capturing four consecutive championships between 1975 and 1978. The Bruins also won back-to-back Memorial Cups in 1977 and 1978.

In 1976, the Oil Kings succumbed to the competing Edmonton Oilers of the World Hockey Association and relocated to Portland to become the Winter Hawks, the WCHL's first American franchise.[3] With the addition of American teams in Seattle and Billings a year later, the WCHL shortened its name to the Western Hockey League.

Brawling '80s

The 1980s were marked by several brawls that involved police intervention, one of the most bizarre trades in hockey history, and the tragic deaths of four players in a bus crash.

Early in the 1980–81 WHL season, Medicine Hat Tigers GM/Coach Pat Ginnell traded blows with a linesman during a bench clearing brawl against the Lethbridge Broncos. Ginnell was found guilty of assault, fined $360, and suspended for 36 games by the WHL. In March 1982 a violent brawl between the Regina Pats and Calgary Wranglers saw the two teams collectively fined $2250 and players suspended for 73 games combined. Pats coach Bill LaForge would end up in a courtroom later that season when he got into an altercation with a fan. LaForge was acquitted when the judge noted that it was hard to convict a man for assault when faced with "an obnoxious person trying to get into the coach's area."[1]. LaForge resigned following the season after serving three separate suspensions.

On January 19, 1983, the Seattle Breakers dealt the rights to Tom Martin to the Victoria Cougars in exchange for the Cougars' team bus. The deal made perfect sense: the Breakers were unable to sign Martin, who wanted to play in his home town of Victoria, and the Cougars were unable to use the bus (which they had purchased from the folded Spokane Flyers) because they were unwilling to pay the taxes and duties required to register the vehicle in Canada.

On December 30, 1986, tragedy struck the Swift Current Broncos when their bus slid off an icy highway and rolled on the way to Regina for a game. Scott Kruger, Trent Kresse, Brent Ruff, and Chris Mantyka were killed.[4] The Broncos retired their numbers, and as of 2009 still wear a commemorative patch in remembrance of the four players who died. The WHL later renamed its award for most valuable player as the Four Broncos Memorial Trophy in their honour.[5]

Modern league

Calgary Hitmen in action against the Saskatoon Blades

The last 15 years in the WHL have been marked by another period of expansion and the return of the league to Western Canada's major cities. The Kamloops Blazers became the WHL's second dynasty in the early 1990s when they won both the WHL Championship and Memorial Cup three times in four years between 1992 and 1995. The Kelowna Rockets have become the third dynasty, winning three WHL titles in 2003, 2005, and 2009; and winning the Memorial Cup as host city in 2004. The Portland Winterhawks became the first American team to win the Memorial Cup, winning it in 1983 while hosting the tournament. The Hawks won the Memorial Cup again in 1998 in Spokane, Washington.

In 1995, the Calgary Hitmen were born when a group of investors, including Bret "the Hitman" Hart, from whom the team got its name, were granted an expansion franchise. Despite early fears that the WHL could not succeed in an NHL city, the Hitmen have been a major success, averaging as many as 10,000 fans per game in 2004–05. The Hitmen were followed one year later by the Edmonton Ice, who failed after only two seasons because of conflicts with the Edmonton Oilers. The team would become the Kootenay Ice, who have become a major success in Cranbrook, British Columbia despite being one of the smallest markets in the league. In the new millennium, the league has given birth to four new expansion teams—the Vancouver Giants in 2001, the Everett Silvertips in 2003, the Chilliwack Bruins in 2005, and the Edmonton Oil Kings in 2007, as the Oilers have taken an interest in cultivating a junior team in the Alberta capital.

The WHL is stereo-typically known for producing large, hard-hitting defencemen and gritty power forwards, although recently a high percentage of quality goaltenders have come out of the Dub as well, as evidenced by the fact that the five of the last six winners of the CHL Goaltender of the Year award have come from the WHL.

Since 2006 Shaw TV has become the television partner with the league in Canada airing a game every Friday Night and other select games through out the season as well as one round of every playoff series. Starting in 2009 FSN Northwest agreed to air some games throughout the northwest United States Of America.

Member teams

WHL's 50th anniversary logo

For the

WHL team locations 2011-Present

season, the WHL comprises 22 teams divided into two conferences, making it the largest league in the CHL; the Ontario Hockey League has 20 teams and the Quebec Major Junior Hockey League has 18. The WHL has member teams across four Canadian provinces, and two American states. The Eastern Conference comprises teams from Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and eastern British Columbia. The Western Conference is made up of teams based in British Columbia, Washington and Oregon.

The top eight teams in each conference qualify for the playoffs, with the division winners declared the top two seeds in the first round of the post-season. The four remaining teams in each conference are reseeded by regular season points in the second round of the playoffs.


Eastern Conference

Division Team City Arena Capacity
Central Calgary Hitmen Calgary, Alberta, Canada Scotiabank Saddledome

Stampede Corral (some playoff games)



Edmonton Oil Kings Edmonton, Alberta, Canada Rogers Place 18,641
Lethbridge Hurricanes Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada ENMAX Centre 5,479
Medicine Hat Tigers Medicine Hat, Alberta, Canada Canalta Centre 5,500 (expandable to 6,500)
Red Deer Rebels Red Deer, Alberta, Canada Peavey Mart Centrium 6,000
Swift Current Broncos Swift Current, Saskatchewan, Canada Credit Union iPlex 3,239
East Brandon Wheat Kings Brandon, Manitoba, Canada Keystone Centre 5,102
Moose Jaw Warriors Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan, Canada Mosaic Place 4,714
Prince Albert Raiders Prince Albert, Saskatchewan, Canada Art Hauser Centre 3,366
Regina Pats Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada Brandt Centre 6,200
Saskatoon Blades Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada SaskTel Centre 15,195
Winnipeg Ice Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada Wayne Fleming Arena 1,400 (being expanded to 2,000)

Western Conference

Division Team City Arena Capacity
B.C. Kamloops Blazers Kamloops, British Columbia, Canada Sandman Centre 5,464
Kelowna Rockets Kelowna, British Columbia, Canada Prospera Place 6,286
Prince George Cougars Prince George, British Columbia, Canada CN Centre 5,971
Vancouver Giants Langley, British Columbia, Canada Langley Event Center 5,276
Victoria Royals Victoria, British Columbia, Canada Save-On-Foods Memorial Centre 7,006
U.S. Everett Silvertips Everett, Washington, United States Angel of the Winds Arena 8,149
Portland Winterhawks Portland, Oregon, United States Memorial Coliseum
Moda Center
Seattle Thunderbirds Kent, Washington, United States ShoWare Center 6,500
Spokane Chiefs Spokane, Washington, United States Spokane Veterans Memorial Arena 10,759
Tri-City Americans Kennewick, Washington, United States Toyota Center 6,000

Team Timeline

Team Centre Arena Seasons Fate
Calgary Buffaloes Calgary, Alberta Stampede Corral 1966-1967 renamed Calgary Centennials
Edmonton Oil Kings (WCHL) Edmonton, Alberta Edmonton Gardens 1966-1976 relocated to Portland, Oregon; renamed Portland Winter Hawks
Estevan Bruins Estevan, Saskatchewan Estevan Civic Auditorium 1966-1971

relocated to New Westminster, British Columbia; renamed New Westminster Bruins, team of same name joins Saskatchewan Junior Hockey League

Moose Jaw Canucks Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan Moose Jaw Civic Centre 1966-1968 join Saskatchewan Junior Hockey League
Regina Pats Regina, Saskatchewan Regina Exhibition Stadium 1966-1968 join Saskatchewan Junior Hockey League
Saskatoon Blades Saskatoon, Saskatchewan Saskatoon Arena (1966-1988); SaskTel Centre (1988-present) (known as Saskatchewan Place 1988-2004, Credit Union Centre 2004-2014) 1966-present
Weyburn Red Wings Weyburn, Saskatchewan Weyburn Colosseum 1966-1968 join Saskatchewan Junior Hockey League
Brandon Wheat Kings Brandon, Manitoba Wheat City Arena (1967-1969), Manex Arena (1969-1973), Westman Place (1973-present) (known as Keystone Arena 1973-2007) 1967-present
Calgary Centennials Calgary Centennials Stampede Corral 1967-1977 relocated to Billings, Montana; renamed Billings Bighorns
Flin Flon Bombers Flin Flon, Manitoba Whitney Forum 1967-1978 relocated to Edmonton, Alberta; renamed Edmonton Oil Kings (WCHL)
Swift Current Broncos Swift Current, Saskatchewan Credit Union iPlex (known as Centennial Civic Centre 1967-2008) 1967-1974 relocated to Lethbridge, Alberta; renamed Lethbridge Broncos
Winnipeg Jets (WCHL) Winnipeg, Manitoba Winnipeg Arena 1967-1973 renamed Winnipeg Clubs
Medicine Hat Tigers Medicine Hat, Alberta Medicine Hat Arena 1970-present
Regina Pats Regina, Saskatchewan Regina Exhibition Stadium (1970-1977), Brandt Centre (1977-present) (known as Regina Agridome 1977-2005) 1970-present
New Westminster Bruins New Westminster, British Columbia Queen's Park Arena 1971-1981 relocated to Kamloops, British Columbia; renamed Kamloops Jr. Oilers
Vancouver Nats Vancouver, British Columbia Pacific Coliseum 1971-1973 relocated to Kamloops, British Columbia; renamed Kamloops Chiefs (WHL)
Victoria Cougars (WHL) Victoria, British Columbia Victoria Memorial Arena 1971-1994 relocated to Prince George, British Columbia; renamed Prince George Cougars
Kamloops Chiefs (WHL) Kamloops, British Columbia Kamloops Memorial Arena 1973-1977 relocated to Seattle, Washington; renamed Seattle Breakers
Winnipeg Clubs Winnipeg, Manitoba Winnipeg Arena 1973-1976 renamed Winnipeg Monarchs (WCHL)
Lethbridge Broncos Lethbridge, Alberta Lethbridge Sportsplex 1974-1986 relocated back to Swift Current, Saskatchewan; revert to Swift Current Broncos name
Portland Winter Hawks Portland, Oregon Memorial Coliseum (Portland) (1976-2009) Rose Garden (arena) 1995-2009) 1976-2009 renamed Portland Winterhawks
Winnipeg Monarchs (WCHL) Winnipeg, Manitoba Winnipeg Arena 1976-1977 relocated to Calgary, Alberta; renamed Calgary Wranglers
Billings Bighorns Billings, Montana MetraPark Arena 1977-1982 relocated to Nanaimo, British Columbia; renamed Nanaimo Islanders
Calgary Wranglers Calgary, Alberta Stampede Corral 1977-1987 relocated to Lethbridge, Alberta; renamed Lethbridge Hurricanes
Seattle Breakers Seattle, Washington Seattle Center Ice Arena 1977-1985 renamed Seattle Thunderbirds
Edmonton Oil Kings (WCHL) Edmonton, Alberta Edmonton Gardens 1978-1979 relocated to Great Falls, Montana; renamed Great Falls Americans
Great Falls Americans Great Falls, Montana Four Seasons Arena 1979-1979 folded December 16, 1979; revived as Spokane Flyers (junior) for 1980-81 season
Spokane Flyers (junior) Spokane, Washington Spokane Coliseum 1980-1981 folded December 2, 1981
Winnipeg Warriors (WHL junior) Winnipeg, Manitoba Winnipeg Arena 1980-1984 relocated to Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan; renamed Moose Jaw Warriors
Kamloops Jr. Oilers Kamloops, British Columbia Kamloops Memorial Arena 1981-1984 renamed Kamloops Blazers
Kelowna Wings Kelowna, British Columbia Kelowna Memorial Arena 1982-1985 relocated to Spokane, Washington; renamed Kelowna Chiefs
Nanaimo Islanders Nanaimo, British Columbia Nanaimo Civic Arena 1982-1983 relocated to New Westminster, British Columbia; renamed New Westminster Bruins
Prince Albert Raiders Prince Albert, Saskatchewan Art Hauser Centre (known as Prince Albert Communiplex 1982-2004) 1982-present
New Westminster Bruins New Westminster, British Columbia Queen's Park Arena 1983-1988 relocated to Kennewick, Washington; renamed Tri City Americans
Kamloops Blazers Kamloops, British Columbia Kamloops Memorial Arena (1984-1992), Sandman Centre (1992-present) (known as Riverside Coliseum 1992-?, Sport Mart Place ?-2005, Interior Savings Centre 2005-2015) 1984-present
Moose Jaw Warriors Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan Moose Jaw Civic Centre (1984-2011), Mosaic Place (2011-present) 1984-present
Spokane Chiefs Spokane, Washington Spokane Coliseum (1985-1995) Spokane Veterans Memorial Arena (1995-present) 1985-present
Seattle Thunderbirds Seattle, Washington (1985-2009)
Kent, Washington (2009-present)
Seattle Center Ice Arena (1985-1995), Seattle Center Coliseum (1997-2009), ShoWare Center (2009-present) 1985-present
Swift Current Broncos Swift Current, Saskatchewan Credit Union iPlex 1986-present
Lethbridge Hurricanes Lethbridge, Alberta ENMAX Centre 1987-present
Tri City Americans Kennewick, Washington Toyota Center (Kennewick) (known as Three Rivers Coliseum (2004-2005)
Tri-Cities Coliseum (1988-2004))
Tacoma Rockets (WHL) Tacoma, Washington Tacoma Dome 1991-1995 relocated to Kelowna, British Columbia; renamed Kelowna Rockets
Red Deer Rebels Red Deer, Alberta ENMAX Centrium 1992-present
Prince George Cougars Prince George, British Columbia Prince George Coliseum (1994-1995) CN Centre (1995-present) (known as Prince George Multiplex 1995-2005) 1994-present
Calgary Hitmen Calgary, Alberta Scotiabank Saddledome
(known as Canadian Airlines Saddledome 1995–2000 and
Pengrowth Saddledome 2000–2010)
Kelowna Rockets Kelowna, British Columbia Kelowna Memorial Arena (1995-1999) Prospera Place (1999-present) (known as Skyreach Place 1999-2003) 1995-present
Edmonton Ice Edmonton, Alberta Northlands Agricom 1996-1998 relocated to Cranbrook, British Columbia; renamed Kootenay Ice
Kootenay Ice Cranbrook, British Columbia Western Financial Place (previously known as Cranbrook Recreational Complex 1998-2012) 1998-2019 relocated to Winnipeg, Manitoba; renamed Winnipeg Ice
Vancouver Giants Vancouver, British Columbia (2001-2016), Langley, British Columbia (2016-present) Pacific Coliseum (2001-2016) Langley Events Center (2016-present) 2001-present
Everett Silvertips Everett, Washington Angel of the Winds Arena (known as verett Events Center 2003–2007, Comcast Center 2007-2014, Xfinity Arena, 2014-2017) 2003-present
Chilliwack Bruins Chilliwack, British Columbia Prospera Centre 2006-2011 relocateed to Victoria, British Columbia; renamed Victoria Royals
Edmonton Oil Kings (2007-present) Edmonton, Alberta Rexall Place (2007-2016), Rogers Place (2016-present) 2007-present
Victoria Royals Victoria, British Columbia Save-On-Foods Memorial Centre 2011-present
Winnipeg Ice Winnipeg, Manitoba Wayne Fleming Arena 2019-present


The WHL has taken a much greater role in its players educational needs in recent years. The league operates a scholarship program that offers one full year of tuition, textbooks and compulsory fees for each season they play in the WHL. Since the program was introduced in 1993, over 3,000 such scholarships have been handed out at a total value of $9-million.[6] Each team maintains an academic advisor, who monitors the academic progress of all players along with the league's Director of Education Services.[7]

Canadian universities and colleges recruit extensively from the WHL, affording graduating players the opportunity to continue playing hockey as they attend post-secondary institutions. The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) considers graduates of the WHL to be ineligible to participate in university hockey programs in the United States.[8] Players hoping to receive scholarships to, and play for, American universities play Junior A hockey in one of the Canadian Junior Hockey League's member organizations so as to retain their NCAA eligibility.[9]

Player eligibility

The WHL Bantam Draft is an annual event which teams select players from bantam hockey league age groups, 14 or 15 years old. The order of selection depends on the final standings of the teams, the last place team selects first the 2nd to last will choose 2nd and so on.

Players aged 15–20 are eligible to play in the WHL, though 15-year olds are permitted to play only five games unless their midget team's season has ended. Also, each team is allowed to have only three 20-year olds on their rosters. Each team is permitted to carry only two non-North American players.[8] Each of the CHL's three member leagues are granted exclusive territorial rights to players from within North America. The WHL holds rights to players from the four western provinces, the western United States and the Yukon and Northwest Territories.

Memorial Cup champions

The Memorial Cup has been captured by a WHL team 18 times since the league's founding



  • Most goals in a season: 108, Ray Ferraro, 1983–84
  • Most assists in a season: 136, Rob Brown, 1986–87
  • Most points in a season: 212, Rob Brown, 1986–87
  • Most penalty minutes in a season: 511, Brent Gogol, 1977–78
  • Most points in a season, rookie: 145, Petr Nedved, 1989–90
  • Most points in a season, defenceman: 140, Cam Plante, 1983–84
  • Most hat-tricks in a season: 15, Ray Ferraro, 1983–84


Trophies and awards

The Ed Chynoweth Cup is awarded to the WHL's champion

League Leaders


  • Ed Chynoweth - 1972-95
  • Dev Dley - 1995-2000
  • Ron Robison - 2000-present

See also


  1. "Buffaloes continue program", Calgary Herald, 1966-10-04, p. 14. 
  2. "CMJHL may play without official sanction of CAHA", Calgary Herald, 1966-10-05, p. 55. 
  3. Matheson, Jim. "Oil Kings get CAHA nod for move to Portland", Edmonton Journal, 1976-05-26, p. 67. 
  4. Naylor, David and Leriche, Timothy. "Tragedy hits hockey club", Calgary Sun, 1986-12-31, p. 5. 
  5. Four Broncos Memorial Trophy. Western Hockey League. Retrieved on 2009-02-11.
  6. Aykroyd, Lucas (12 2008). "School's in Session". Prospects Hockey. 
  7. (2008) in Flett, Corey and Watts, Jessie: 2008–09 WHL Guide. Western Hockey League, 191. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 WHL Frequently Asked Questions. Western Hockey League. Retrieved on 2009-02-11.
  9. Lamb, Kirk. "Guide for College Bound Hockey Players", Alberta Junior Hockey League, p. 34. 

External links

Western Hockey League
Current teams : Brandon Wheat Kings | Calgary Hitmen | Edmonton Oil Kings | Everett Silvertips | Kamloops Blazers | Kelowna Rockets | Kootenay Ice | Lethbridge Hurricanes | Medicine Hat Tigers | Moose Jaw Warriors | Portland Winterhawks | Prince Albert Raiders | Prince George Cougars | Red Deer Rebels | Regina Pats | Saskatoon Blades | Seattle Thunderbirds | Spokane Chiefs | Swift Current Broncos | Tri-City Americans | Vancouver Giants | Victoria Royals
CHL: Memorial Cup | Ed Chynoweth Cup | WHL seasons | WHL history | Awards | OHL | QMJHL

This page uses content from Wikipedia. The original article was at Western Hockey League (junior). The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with Ice Hockey Wiki, the text of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License 3.0 (Unported) (CC-BY-SA).