Nhlonabc.jpg

The NHL on ABC is the branding formerly used for broadcasts of National Hockey League (NHL) games televised on the American Broadcasting Company (ABC) in the United States. The network first broadcast NHL games during the 1992–93 season under a time-buy agreement with ESPN; ABC resumed regular season game telecasts on February 6, 2000, as part of a joint contract with ESPN that also gave ABC the rights to select games from each round of the Stanley Cup playoffs.

History[edit | edit source]

Before the 1992–93 NHL season[edit | edit source]

After being dropped by NBC after the 1974–75 season,[1][2][3] the NHL did not maintain a national television contract in the United States.[4][5][6] In response to this, the league put together a network of independent stations covering approximately 55% of the country.[7][8][9]

Games typically aired on Monday nights[10] (beginning at 8 p.m. Eastern Time) or Saturday afternoons. The package was offered to local stations without a rights fee.[11] Profits would instead be derived from the advertising, which was about evenly split between the network and the local station. The Monday night games were often billed as "The NHL Game of the Week".[12]

Initially, the Monday night package was marketed to ABC affiliates; the idea being that ABC carried NFL football games on Monday nights in the fall and (starting in May 1976) Major League Baseball games on Monday nights in the spring and summer, stations would want the hockey telecasts to create a year-round Monday night sports block; however, very few ABC stations chose to pick up the package.

In 1979, ABC was contracted to televise Game 7 of the Stanley Cup Finals.[13][14] Since the Finals ended in five games, the contract was void.[15]

It was also around this time that ABC offered the NHL a limited deal that NHL president John Ziegler[16] quickly rejected. ABC wanted to split the network and show the NHL in the Northeast and Midwest and NASCAR in the South on Sunday afternoons.

ABC Radio coverage (1989–1991)[edit | edit source]

In 1989,[17] the NHL signed a two-year contract (lasting through the 1990–91 season) with ABC Radio for the broadcast rights to the All-Star Game and Stanley Cup Finals.[18][19] ABC Radio named Don Chevrier and Phil Esposito as their main commentating crew.[20][21][22][23]

Time-buy deal with ESPN (1992–1994)[edit | edit source]

In the 1992–93[24] and 1993–94 seasons, ABC televised six[25] weekly regional telecasts[26][27] on Sunday afternoons beginning in March[28] (or the last three Sundays[29] of the regular season). This marked the first time that regular season National Hockey League games were broadcast on American network television[30] since 1974–75 (when NBC was the NHL's American broadcast television partner). ABC would then televise three weeks worth of playoff games[31][32] (or the first three Sundays[33][34] of the playoffs[35][36][37][38]). The network did not televise the Stanley Cup Finals, which instead, were televised nationally by ESPN and by Prime Ticket in Los Angeles (1993) and MSG Network in New York (1994). Games televised on ABC were not subject to blackout.

These broadcasts (just as was the case with the 19992004 package) were essentially, time-buys[39] by ESPN.[40][41] In other words, ABC would sell three-hour blocks of airtime to ESPN[42], which in return, would produce, supply broadcasters and sell advertising. Also as evidence by ABC's Raycom[43] produced college basketball package around the same time period, this arrangement could also be interpreted as a way to avoid union contracts, which require that 100% of network shows had to use crew staff who were network union members.[44] The main difference is that the graphics used for the telecasts were those used by ABC Sports, instead of the ones seen on ESPN National Hockey Night. In later years, the roles would be reversed as ESPN's graphical style would be used on the broadcasts with the exception of intermission reports. ABC even used ESPN's theme music[45] for the 1992–1994 coverage. During ABC's next stint with the NHL, the network used its own theme music.[46]

Overall, ABC averaged a 1.7 rating[47][48][49] for those two seasons.

When the NHL television contract went up for negotiation in early 1994, Fox (which was in the process of launching its sports division after acquiring the rights to the National Football Conference of the NFL) and CBS (which was hoping to land a major sports contract to replace the NFL rights that they lost to Fox and Major League Baseball rights that they lost to ABC and NBC) competed heavily for the package. On September 9, 1994, the National Hockey League reached a five-year, US$155 million contract with Fox for the broadcast television rights to the league's games, beginning with the 1994–95 season,[50] effectively ending ABC's time-buy deal with ESPN after just two seasons.

1992-93[edit | edit source]

Main article: 1992–93 NHL season
Playoffs[edit | edit source]
Round Series Games covered Play-by-play Color commentator
Division semifinals Pittsburgh vs. New Jersey Games 1, 4 Gary Thorne Bill Clement
Chicago vs. St. Louis Games 1, 4[51] Mike Emrick Jim Schoenfeld
Calgary vs. Los Angeles Games 1, 4 Al Michaels[52][53] John Davidson
Division finals Pittsburgh vs. New York Islanders Game 1[54][55] Gary Thorne[56] Bill Clement
Toronto vs. St. Louis Game 4 Gary Thorne Bill Clement
Vancouver vs. Los Angeles Game 1 Mike Emrick[57] John Davidson
Conference finals Montreal vs. New York Islanders Game 1[58] Gary Thorne Bill Clement

1993–94[edit | edit source]

Main article: 1993–94 NHL season
Date Teams Start times (All times Eastern)
March 27[59][60][61][62][63] Boston at Washington
Detroit at Chicago
New York Rangers at Winnipeg
Los Angeles at Vancouver
1 p.m.
2 p.m.
2 p.m.
3 p.m.
April 3[64] Boston at Pittsburgh
Dallas at Washington
St. Louis at Detroit
Edmonton at Los Angeles
1 p.m.
1 p.m.
1 p.m.
4 p.m.
April 10[65][66][67][68] New York Rangers at New York Islanders
[69] Boston at Philadelphia
Los Angeles at Chicago
Dallas at St. Louis
1 p.m.
1 p.m.
1 p.m.
1 p.m.

April 17,[70][71] 24,[72] May 1: Playoffs

Playoffs[edit | edit source]
Round Series Games covered Play-by-play Color commentator Ice level reporter
First round New York Rangers-New York Islanders Games 1, 4 Gary Thorne Bill Clement Al Morganti
Dallas vs. St. Louis Games 1, 4[73] Tom Mees Darren Pang (Game 1)
John Davidson (Game 4)
Bob Neumeier (Game 1)
Conference semifinals New Jersey vs. Boston Game 1 Gary Thorne Bill Clement Al Morganti

Announcers[edit | edit source]

Studio host: John Saunders

Broadcast teams (1992–93)[edit | edit source]

  1. Gary Thorne-Bill Clement
  2. Mike Emrick-Jim Schoenfeld/John Davidson
  3. Al Michaels-John Davidson

Broadcast teams (1993–94)[edit | edit source]

  1. Gary Thorne-Bill Clement
  2. Tom Mees-John Davidson/Darren Pang
  3. Bob Miller or Sam Rosen-John Davidson

Reporters

The NHL returns to ABC (1999–2004)[edit | edit source]

In August 1998, ABC, ESPN and ESPN2 signed a five-year television deal with the NHL, worth a total of approximately US$600 million[74][75] (or $120 million per year). The $120 million per year that ABC and ESPN paid for rights dwarfed the $5.5 million that the NHL received from American national broadcasts in the 1991–92 season.[76] As previously mentioned, as was the case with the 19921994 deal, ABC's subsequent NHL coverage was in reality, made up of time–buys from ESPN. This was noted in copyright beds at the conclusion of the telecasts, i.e. "The preceding program has been paid for by ESPN, Inc." ESPN then signed a similar television rights contract in 2002 so it could produce and broadcast National Basketball Association games on ABC.

Regular season[edit | edit source]

This time around, ABC televised four to five weeks worth of regional games on Saturday afternoons beginning in January.

1999–2000[edit | edit source]
[77]
Date Teams Start times (All times Eastern) Commentator crews
March 18 Pittsburgh at Boston
New York Rangers at Philadelphia
Dallas at Chicago
Detroit at Colorado
3 p.m.
3 p.m.
3 p.m.
3 p.m.
Mike Emrick and Barry Melrose
Dave Strader and Jim Schoenfeld
Steve Levy and Darren Pang
Gary Thorne and Bill Clement
March 26 Pittsburgh at Philadelphia
New York Rangers at Detroit
St. Louis at Chicago
Colorado at Dallas
1 p.m.
1 p.m.
1 p.m.
1 p.m.
Steve Levy and Darren Pang
Dave Strader and Jim Schoenfeld
Mike Emrick and Barry Melrose
Gary Thorne and Bill Clement
April 1 New York Rangers at Boston
Philadelphia at Pittsburgh
Detroit at St. Louis
Anaheim at Los Angeles
1 p.m.
1 p.m.
1 p.m.
6 p.m.
Dave Strader and Jim Schoenfeld
Mike Emrick and Barry Melrose
Gary Thorne and Bill Clement
Steve Levy and Darren Pang
April 9 Philadelphia at New York Rangers
St. Louis at Chicago
Phoenix at Dallas
Detroit at Colorado
Los Angeles at Anaheim
3 p.m.
3 p.m.
3 p.m.
3 p.m.
3 p.m.
Dave Strader and Jim Schoenfeld
Mike Emrick and Barry Melrose
Steve Levy and Darren Pang
Gary Thorne and Bill Clement
Dave Ryan and Joe Micheletti
2000-01[edit | edit source]
Main article: 2000–01 NHL season
Date Teams Start times (All times Eastern) Commentator crews
March 10 New Jersey at Philadelphia
Detroit at St. Louis
Colorado at Dallas
3 p.m.
3 p.m.
3 p.m.
Mike Emrick and Barry Melrose
Gary Thorne and Bill Clement
Steve Levy and Darren Pang
March 17 New York Rangers at Philadelphia
Detroit at Colorado
San Jose at Los Angeles
3 p.m.
3 p.m.
3 p.m.
Steve Levy and Darren Pang
Gary Thorne and Bill Clement
Mike Emrick and Barry Melrose
March 24 Detroit at New York Rangers
Colorado at Boston
Anaheim at Los Angeles
1 p.m.
1 p.m.
6 p.m.
Mike Emrick and Barry Melrose
Gary Thorne and Bill Clement
Steve Levy and Darren Pang
March 31 New York Rangers at New Jersey
Detroit at Philadelphia
St. Louis at Pittsburgh
Colorado at Los Angeles
3 p.m.
3 p.m.
3 p.m.
3 p.m.
Mike Emrick and Barry Melrose
Steve Levy and Darren Pang
Gary Thorne and Bill Clement
Dave Strader and Jim Schoenfeld
April 7 Pittsburgh at Philadelphia
Colorado at Detroit
Dallas at San Jose
New York Rangers at Florida
3 p.m.
3 p.m.
3 p.m.
3 p.m.
Mike Emrick and Barry Melrose
Gary Thorne and Bill Clement
Steve Levy and Darren Pang
Dave Strader and Jim Schoenfeld
2001-02[edit | edit source]
Main article: 2001–02 NHL season
Date Teams Start times (All times Eastern) Commentator crews
January 5 Colorado at Detroit
Pittsburgh at New York Rangers
Washington at Boston
3 p.m.
3 p.m.
3 p.m.
Gary Thorne and Bill Clement
Mike Emrick and Barry Melrose
Steve Levy and Darren Pang
January 12 New York Rangers at Philadelphia
St. Louis at Pittsburgh
Dallas at Detroit
1 p.m.
1 p.m.
1 p.m.
Gary Thorne and Bill Clement
Mike Emrick and Barry Melrose
Steve Levy and Darren Pang
March 2 Philadelphia at New York Rangers
Detroit at Pittsburgh
Dallas at Colorado
3 p.m.
3 p.m.
3 p.m.
Mike Emrick and Barry Melrose
Steve Levy and Darren Pang
Gary Thorne and Bill Clement
March 9 New York Rangers at Pittsburgh
Detroit at St. Louis
Los Angeles at Colorado
3 p.m.
3 p.m.
3 p.m.
Mike Emrick and Barry Melrose
Gary Thorne and Bill Clement
Steve Levy and Darren Pang
March 16 Detroit at Boston
New York Rangers at New Jersey
Colorado at Philadelphia
3 p.m.
3 p.m.
3 p.m.
Gary Thorne and Bill Clement
Mike Emrick and Barry Melrose
Steve Levy and Darren Pang
2002-03[edit | edit source]
Main article: 2002–03 NHL season
[78]
Date Teams Start times (All times Eastern) Commentator crews
January 11 Colorado at Dallas
Detroit at Philadelphia
New York Rangers at Pittsburgh
1 p.m.
1 p.m.
1 p.m.
Steve Levy and Darren Pang
Gary Thorne, Bill Clement and John Davidson
Mike Emrick and Brian Engblom
February 8 Pittsburgh at Boston
Detroit at Colorado
New York Rangers at Philadelphia
3 p.m.
3 p.m.
3 p.m.
Steve Levy and Darren Pang
Gary Thorne, Bill Clement, and John Davidson
Mike Emrick and Brian Engblom
March 15 Colorado at Detroit
New York Rangers at New Jersey
Philadelphia at Pittsburgh
3 p.m.
3 p.m.
3 p.m.
Gary Thorne, Bill Clement, and John Davidson
Mike Emrick and Brian Engblom
Steve Levy and Darren Pang
March 22 New York Rangers at Philadelphia
Chicago at Colorado
Detroit at St. Louis
3 p.m.
3 p.m.
3 p.m.
Steve Levy and Darren Pang
Mike Emrick and Brian Engblom
Gary Thorne, Bill Clement, and John Davidson
March 29 Detroit at St. Louis
New York Rangers at Boston
Phoenix at Colorado
1:30 p.m.
1:30 p.m.
6 p.m.
Gary Thorne, Bill Clement, and John Davidson
Steve Levy and Darren Pang
Mike Emrick and Brian Engblom
2003-04[edit | edit source]
Main article: 2003–04 NHL season
Date Teams Start times (All times Eastern) Commentator crews
January 10 Detroit at Boston
Colorado at Dallas
New York Rangers at New York Islanders
1 p.m.
1 p.m.
1 p.m.
Gary Thorne, Bill Clement, and John Davidson
Steve Levy and Darren Pang
Mike Emrick and Brian Engblom
February 14 New York Rangers at Philadelphia
Colorado at Detroit
Boston at Chicago
3 p.m.
3 p.m.
3 p.m.
Steve Levy and Darren Pang
Gary Thorne, Bill Clement, and John Davidson
Mike Emrick and Brian Engblom
March 13 Dallas at Detroit
New Jersey at Philadelphia
Los Angeles at San Jose
3 p.m.
3 p.m.
3 p.m.
Gary Thorne, Bill Clement, and John Davidson
Steve Levy and Darren Pang
Mike Emrick and Brian Engblom
March 20 New York Rangers at Philadelphia
St. Louis at Dallas
3 p.m.
3 p.m.
Gary Thorne, Bill Clement, and John Davidson
Steve Levy and Darren Pang
March 27 Colorado at Detroit
New York Rangers at Philadelphia
Los Angeles at Calgary
1:30 p.m.
1:30 p.m.
6 p.m.
Gary Thorne, Bill Clement, and John Davidson
Steve Levy and Darren Pang
Mike Emrick and Brian Engblom

NHL All-Star Game[edit | edit source]

Year Play-by-play Color commentator(s) Ice level reporters Studio host Studio analysts
2004[79][80][81] Gary Thorne Bill Clement and John Davidson Erin Andrews and Sam Ryan John Saunders Barry Melrose and Darren Pang
2003 Gary Thorne Bill Clement and John Davidson Erin Andrews and Sam Ryan John Saunders Barry Melrose and Darren Pang
2002[82][83][84][85] Gary Thorne Bill Clement Brian Engblom and Darren Pang John Saunders John Davidson and Barry Melrose
2001[86] Gary Thorne Bill Clement Brian Engblom and Darren Pang John Saunders John Davidson and Barry Melrose
2000[87] Gary Thorne Bill Clement Brian Engblom and Darren Pang John Saunders John Davidson and Barry Melrose

Stanley Cup Playoffs 2000–2004[edit | edit source]

Besides the National Hockey League All-Star Game[88], ABC televised Games 3–7 of the Stanley Cup Finals[89] in prime time. In the league's previous broadcast television deal with Fox, the network split coverage of the Stanley Cup Finals with ESPN. Games 1, 5 and 7 were usually scheduled to be televised by Fox; Games 2, 3, 4 and 6 by ESPN. However, from 1995 to 1998, the Finals were all four-game sweeps; 1999 ended in six games. The consequence was that – except for 1995, when Fox did televise Game 4 – the decisive game was never on network television.

2003 was the only year that ABC broadcast both the NBA and the Stanley Cup Finals that involved teams from one city in the same year, as both the New Jersey Nets and the New Jersey Devils were in their respective league's finals. During ABC's broadcast of Game 3 between the San Antonio Spurs and the Nets in New Jersey on June 8, Brad Nessler, Tom Tolbert and Bill Walton said that ABC was in a unique situation getting ready for both that game and Game 7 of the Stanley Cup Finals between the Devils and the Mighty Ducks of Anaheim the following night, also at Continental Airlines Arena. Gary Thorne, Bill Clement and John Davidson mentioned this the following night, and thanked Nessler, Tolbert and Walton for promoting ABC's broadcast of Game 7 of the Stanley Cup Finals.[90]

Following the 2003–04 season, ESPN was only willing to renew its contract for two additional years at $60 million per year.[91] ABC refused to televise the Stanley Cup Finals in prime time, suggesting that the Finals games it would telecast be played on weekend afternoons (including a potential Game 7). Disney executives later conceded that they overpaid for the 1999–2004 deal, so the company's offer to renew the television rights was lower in 2004.[92]

Stanley Cup playoffs commentating crews[edit | edit source]
Year Round Teams Games Play-by-play Color commentary Ice-level reporter(s)
2000 Quarterfinals Washington-Pittsburgh Game 2 Mike Emrick Barry Melrose Joe Micheletti
St. Louis-San Jose Game 2, 6 Dave Strader (Game 2)
Gary Thorne (Game 6)
Brian Hayward (Game 2)
Bill Clement (Game 6)
Brian Engblom (Game 6)
Colorado-Phoenix Game 2 Steve Levy Darren Pang Daryl Reaugh
Detroit-Los Angeles Game 2 Gary Thorne Bill Clement Brian Engblom
Semifinals Philadelphia-Pittsburgh Game 2, 5 Steve Levy (Game 2)
Gary Thorne (Game 5)
Darren Pang (Game 2)
Bill Clement (Game 5)
Daryl Reaugh (Game 2)
Brian Engblom and Darren Pang (Game 5)
Colorado-Detroit Game 2 Gary Thorne Bill Clement Brian Engblom
Conference finals Philadelphia-New Jersey Game 1 Gary Thorne Bill Clement Brian Engblom
Dallas-Colorado Game 4 Gary Thorne Bill Clement Brian Engblom
2001 Quarterfinals Washington-Pittsburgh Games 2, 5 Gary Thorne Bill Clement Brian Engblom
Philadelphia-Buffalo Games 2, 6 Mike Emrick Barry Melrose Joe Micheletti
Detroit-Los Angeles Games 2, 5 Steve Levy Darren Pang Mickey Redmond
St. Louis-San Jose Games 2, 6 Dave Strader Jim Schoenfeld Christine Simpson
Semifinals Buffalo-Pittsburgh Games 2, 5 Steve Levy (Game 2)
Gary Thorne (Game 5)
Darren Pang (Game 2)
Bill Clement (Game 5)
Joe Micheletti (Game 2)
Brian Engblom (Game 5)
Colorado-Los Angeles Game 2 Gary Thorne Bill Clement Brian Engblom
Conference finals New Jersey-Pittsburgh Game 4 Gary Thorne Bill Clement Brian Engblom
Colorado-St. Louis Game 1 Gary Thorne Bill Clement Brian Engblom
2002 Quarterfinals Boston-Montreal Game 5 Gary Thorne Bill Clement Brian Engblom
Carolina-New Jersey Game 6 Mike Emrick Barry Melrose Christine Simpson
Toronto-New York Islanders Game 2 Mike Emrick Barry Melrose Christine Simpson
Colorado-Los Angeles Game 2, 6 Gary Thorne (Game 2)
Steve Levy (Game 6)
Bill Clement (Game 2)
Darren Pang (Game 6)
Brian Engblom (Game 2)
Joe Micheletti (Game 6)
San Jose-Phoenix Game 2 Dave Strader Jim Schoenfeld Tony Granato
St. Louis-Chicago Game 2 Steve Levy Darren Pang Joe Micheletti
Semifinals Detroit-St. Louis Games 2, 5 Gary Thorne Bill Clement Brian Engblom
Colorado-San Jose Games 2, 5 Steve Levy Darren Pang Joe Micheletti
Conference finals Detroit-Colorado Games 1, 4 Gary Thorne Bill Clement Brian Engblom
2003 Quarterfinals Tampa Bay-Washington Game 2 Mike Emrick Brian Engblom
Philadelphia-Toronto Game 5 Gary Thorne Bill Clement and John Davidson Christine Simpson
Detroit-Anaheim Game 2 Gary Thorne Bill Clement and John Davidson Christine Simpson
Colorado-Minnesota Games 2, 5 Steve Levy Darren Pang
Semifinals Ottawa-Philadelphia Game 5 Steve Levy Darren Pang Joe Micheletti
New Jersey-Tampa Bay Game 2 Gary Thorne Bill Clement and John Davidson Christine Simpson
Dallas-Anaheim Games 2, 5 Steve Levy (Game 2)
Gary Thorne (Game 5)
Darren Pang (Game 2)
Bill Clement and John Davidson (Game 5)
Joe Micheletti (Game 2)
Christine Simpson (Game 5)
Conference finals Ottawa-New Jersey Game 4 Steve Levy Darren Pang and John Davidson Joe Micheletti
Minnesota-Anaheim Game 1 Gary Thorne Bill Clement and John Davidson Brian Engblom
2004 Quarterfinals Tampa Bay Lightning-New York Islanders Game 2 Steve Levy Darren Pang Erin Andrews
Philadelphia-New Jersey Game 5 Steve Levy Darren Pang Erin Andrews
Detroit-Nashville Games 2, 6 Gary Thorne Bill Clement and John Davidson
San Jose-St. Louis Game 2 Mike Emrick Brian Engblom
Colorado-Dallas Game 5 Mike Emrick Brian Engblom
Semifinals Detroit-Calgary Games 2, 5 Gary Thorne Bill Clement and John Davidson
San Jose-Colorado Games 2, 5 Mike Emrick (Game 2)
Steve Levy (Game 5)
Darren Pang Erin Andrews
Conference finals Tampa Bay-Philadelphia Games 1, 4 Gary Thorne Bill Clement and John Davidson Sam Ryan (Game 1)
Joe Micheletti (Game 4)
Stanley Cup Final commentating crews[edit | edit source]
Year Round Teams Games Play-by-play Color commentary Ice-level reporter(s)
2000 Finals New Jersey-Dallas Game 3–6 Gary Thorne Bill Clement Brian Engblom and Darren Pang
2001 Finals Colorado-New Jersey Games 3–7 Gary Thorne Bill Clement Brian Engblom and Darren Pang
2002 Finals Detroit-Carolina Games 3–5 Gary Thorne Bill Clement Brian Engblom and Darren Pang
2003 Finals New Jersey-Anaheim Games 3–7 Gary Thorne Bill Clement and John Davidson Brian Engblom, Darren Pang, and Sam Ryan
2004 Finals Tampa Bay-Calgary Games 3–7 Gary Thorne Bill Clement and John Davidson Erin Andrews, and Sam Ryan, and Darren Pang

Announcers[edit | edit source]

Studio personalities[edit | edit source]

Stanley Cup Finals personalities[edit | edit source]

Commentator Crews[edit | edit source]

  1. Gary Thorne-Bill Clement and John Davidson (2003–04)
  2. Steve Levy-Darren Pang
  3. Mike Emrick-Barry Melrose/Brian Engblom
  4. Dave Strader-Jim Schoenfeld
  5. Dave Ryan-Joe Micheletti

Reporters[edit | edit source]

Nielsen ratings[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. Frederick C. Klein. "Hockey, Violence and Movies", March 25, 1977. 
  2. Ross Atkin. "Sports check on what's new", June 9, 1975, p. 19. 
  3. "5 New Coaches Will Try to Dethrone the Flyers", October 8, 1975, p. D8. 
  4. George Langford. "Hockey in battle for TV life!", October 5, 1975, p. I3. 
  5. Joseph Durso. "Problems of Overexpansion Continue to Haunt NBA and NHL", July 13, 1977, p. A16. 
  6. Robin Herman. "NHL's President-Elect Scores Points With His Take-Charge Attitude", June 28, 1977, p. 24. 
  7. "Holiday TV Hurts Series", December 28, 1975, p. 137. 
  8. "NHL Plans Cup TV; Seeks New York Outlet", March 23, 1976, p. 46. 
  9. Bob Verdi. "Hockey needs TV blanket to keep it warm in U.S.", January 17, 1979, p. E1. 
  10. Gary Deeb. "TV hockey back, but no Hawks", November 9, 1976, p. C2. 
  11. Gary Deeb. "SHRINKING ACT", February 23, 1979, p. E4. 
  12. Don Merry. "NHL Starts Tonight: Action but No TV", October 11, 1978, p. E2. 
  13. "May 26 Selected For a 7th Game", The New York Times Company, May 13, 1979, p. S4. 
  14. "NHL, ABC-TV Agree", May 13, 1979, p. 89. 
  15. Donald Ramsay. "Montreal win kills ABC TV deal but Ziegler feels pact is on way", May 22, 1979, p. P35. 
  16. Barry, Sal (October 29, 2018). John Ziegler Did More Harm Than Good for Hockey.
  17. "ABC RADIO GETS STANLEY CUP", September 12, 1989. 
  18. Robert Fachet. "NOTEBOOK; Regular Season Honors to Bruins; Liut Top Goalie", April 3, 1990, p. B08. 
  19. Rob Grant. "TV deal offers another chance but CFL needs a career year", May 17, 1991, p. C.8. 
  20. Milt Dunnell. "Relief role McGwire's dream", July 16, 1989, p. G1. 
  21. "Munchies List is Some Food for Thought", May 19, 1990, p. B8. 
  22. Rob Grant. "Cool Goodyear feels the heat of Indy-scribable media hype", May 19, 1990. 
  23. Ken McKee. "Palmer heads the short list as replacement for Kubek", December 22, 1989, p. B7. 
  24. Steve Wulf (December 27, 1993). "The Network Lineup". Sports Illustrated. 
  25. "NHL strikes TV deal with ESPN", UPI, September 2, 1992. 
  26. "NHL governors "ecstatic' over reported TV package", August 27, 1992, p. E2. 
  27. E.M. Swift (June 20, 1994). "Hot Not". Sports Illustrated. 
  28. Rudy Martzke. "NHL's new boss ready to clear up confusion", February 5, 1993, p. 3C. 
  29. Michael Hiestand. "Camera could be newest Derby rider", April 28, 1993, p. 3C. 
  30. Jim Shea. "Select few watching NHL on ABC", May 7, 1993, p. E9. 
  31. Michael Heistand. "Weighty ESPY awards get lighthearted touch", March 4, 1993, p. 3C. 
  32. Mike Kiley. "NHL BOSS FINISHES EVENTFUL 1ST YEAR BETTMAN FOCUSES ON CBS DEAL", January 21, 1994, p. 3. 
  33. Jorge Milan. "NBC WINS WITH LOTTERY, EAST FINALS", May 22, 1993, p. 7C. 
  34. Ken McKee. "TV picture still fuzzy for NHL playoff schedule", April 15, 1994, p. E8. 
  35. Randy Covitz. "ABC to help showcase NHL with 5 playoff games", March 6, 1993, p. D6. 
  36. Mike Kiley. "He's Muni-ficent: Oilers coach lavishes praise on new Hawk", March 28, 1993, p. 12. 
  37. Joe LaPointe. "HOCKEY; N.H.L. Is About to Showcase Lemieux and the Prime-Time Penguins", April 11, 1993. 
  38. Mike Kiley. "Hawks must win Norris to make ABC telecast", April 12, 1993, p. 11. 
  39. Michael Hiestand. "NHL announces TV deal but some details murky", September 3, 1992, p. 3C. 
  40. Craig Davis. "TOO MUCH PUNCH RUINS NHL PARTY", August 22, 1992, p. 1C. 
  41. Rudy Martzke. "Fox makes hockey its newest surprise", September 12, 1994, p. 3C. 
  42. Sandomir, Richard. "HOCKEY; Legal Sabers Rattle Over N.H.L. TV Plan", New York Times, August 27, 1992. 
  43. Sports4. Online Sports. Archived from the original on September 28, 2011. “The biggest time-buy arrangement is between Raycom and ABC. For the 1991–92 season, it paid ABC $1.8 million for six weeks of air time—13 telecasts—covering 26 college basketball games regionally. Raycom used ABC on-air talent including Brent Musburger, Dick Vitale, Jim Valvano, Gary Bender, Cheryl Miller, and Mark Jones.”
  44. William Taaffe (October 12, 1987). It's Bottom-line Time. Sports Illustrated. Time Inc.. “Also revealing is ABC's whirlwind use of network crews on last season's college basketball games. The cameramen and technicians typically arrived at an arena to set up at around 2:00 a.m. on the day of the game so the network could save on expenses. They then caught a few hours' sleep, returned to the arena to televise the game, broke down the equipment and flew home so as not to run up costs the following day.”
  45. NHL on ESPN Theme at YouTube
  46. NHL on ABC full theme at YouTube
  47. Aaron N. Wise and Bruce S. Meyer (1997). International sports law and business, Volume 3. Kluwer Law International, 1704. 
  48. DiGivanna, Mike. "MIGHTY DUCKS '93-94: PREMIERE SEASON : A Brave new NHL : As It Welcomes Two New Members, the National Hockey League Ponders What It Needs to Do to Become the Sport of the '90s", Los Angeles Times, October 3, 1993. 
  49. Coach`s Corner - ABC covering the NHL at YouTube
  50. Richard Sandomir. "Fox Outbids CBS for N.H.L. Games", September 10, 1994. Retrieved on March 20, 2008. 
  51. StL Blues vs Chi Playoffs (Game 4 – 1993) at YouTube
  52. 92-93 Playoffs Kings goals vs Flames (Round One) at YouTube
  53. 1993 Kings-Flames at YouTube
  54. 1993 NHL Playoffs Islanders vs Penguins – Game One 5/2/93 at YouTube
  55. Game 1 and 2 1993 Patrick Division Final Islanders at Penguins highlights at YouTube
  56. New York Islanders at Pittsburgh Penguins, May 2, 1993 at YouTube
  57. 92-93 Playoffs Kings goals vs Canucks (Round Two) at YouTube
  58. Game 1 1993 Patrick Division Final Pierre Turgeon Interview at YouTube
  59. Jerry Lindquist. "NO MORE LIFE IN A FISHBOWL", March 24, 1994, p. C4. 
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