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[[File:Images-1.jpeg|frame|The logo for the NHA, used from 1909 to 1917]]The '''National Hockey Association''' (December 2, [[1909]] - December 11, [[1918]]) was a professional [[ice hockey]] organization with teams in [[Ontario]] and [[Quebec]], [[Canada]]. It is the direct predecessor organization to today's [[National Hockey League]].
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The '''National Hockey Association''' (December 2, [[1909]] - December 11, [[1918]]) was a professional [[ice hockey]] organization with teams in [[Ontario]] and [[Quebec]], [[Canada]]. It is the direct predecessor organization to today's [[National Hockey League]].
   
 
==History==
 
==History==
{{Evolution of the NHL}}At the time of the league's founding in 1910, the [[Eastern Canada Hockey Association]] which dated from 1906 and was itself the successor of the first recognized major hockey league, the [[Amateur Hockey Association of Canada]], was in the midst of a political battle. In an effort to freeze out the [[Montreal Wanderers]] franchise, the ECHA disbanded and a new league formed to be called the Canadian Hockey Association, deliberately designed to exclude the Wanderers. After numerous rejections and snubs from the ECHA, [[Ambrose O'Brien]] and his father, Michael J. O'Brien, created their own league, calling it the National Hockey Association (NHA). The O'Briens financed four teams in the league: the Renfrew Creamery Kings which became known as the Renfrew Millionaires, Cobalt, Haileybury and Les Canadiens of Montreal. Within a month, the Montreal Wanderers also joined to became the fifth team.
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{{Evolution of the NHL}}At the time of the league's founding in 1910, the [[Eastern Canada Hockey Association]] which dated from 1906 and was itself the successor of the first recognized major hockey league, the [[Amateur Hockey Association of Canada]], was in the midst of a political battle. In an effort to freeze out the [[Montreal Wanderers]] franchise, the ECHA disbanded and a new league formed to be called the Canadian Hockey Association, deliberately designed to exclude the Wanderers. After numerous rejections and snubs from the ECHA, [[Ambrose O'Brien]] and his father, Michael J. O'Brien, created their own league, calling it the National Hockey Association (NHA). The O'Briens financed four teams in the league: the Renfrew Creamery Kings which became known as the Renfrew Millionaires, Cobalt, Haileybury and Les Canadiens of Montreal. Within a month, the Montreal Wanderers also joined to became the fifth team.
   
A bidding war for players immediately started, and [[Frank Patrick]] and [[Lester Patrick]] were each signed by the Renfrew Millionaires for $3,000 apiece, the highest salaries recorded to that time. It became readily apparent that two leagues could not be sustained -- there were five teams in Montreal alone -- and after eight games the CHA folded, the [[Ottawa Senators (original)|Ottawa Senators]] and [[Montreal Shamrocks]] being admitted to the NHA.
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A bidding war for players immediately started, and [[Frank Patrick]] and [[Lester Patrick]] were each signed by the Renfrew Millionaires for $3,000 apiece, the highest salaries recorded to that time. It became readily apparent that two leagues could not be sustained -- there were five teams in Montreal alone -- and after eight games the CHA folded, the [[Ottawa Senators (original)|Ottawa Senators]] and [[Montreal Shamrocks]] being admitted to the NHA.
   
Labour unrest was a hallmark of the league, the [[1910-11 NHA season|1910-1911]] season almost foundering because of widespread dissatisfaction amongst the players at the salaries on offer, and players' unions were rumored to be on the verge of creation at several points. However, the league put forth several innovations, among them the abolition of the rover position in 1912, the inclusion of numbers on jerseys, the institution of match penalties and allowing line changes on the fly.
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Labour unrest was a hallmark of the league, the [[1910-11 NHA season|1910-1911]] season almost foundering because of widespread dissatisfaction amongst the players at the salaries on offer, and players' unions were rumored to be on the verge of creation at several points. However, the league put forth several innovations, among them the abolition of the rover position in 1912, the inclusion of numbers on jerseys, the institution of match penalties and allowing line changes on the fly.
   
The championship trophy of the NHA was the [[O'Brien Trophy]], donated by the O'Brien family and which survived to become the championship trophy of the NHL. However, as the [[Ottawa Senators (original)|Ottawa Senators]] joined the league as the reigning [[Stanley Cup]] champions, the first five seasons of the league had the Cup awarded to the league champions, which then defended it against outside challenges.
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The championship trophy of the NHA was the [[O'Brien Trophy]], donated by the O'Brien family and which survived to become the championship trophy of the NHL. However, as the [[Ottawa Senators (original)|Ottawa Senators]] joined the league as the reigning [[Stanley Cup]] champions, the first five seasons of the league had the Cup awarded to the league champions, which then defended it against outside challenges.
   
Starting in the [[1914-15 NHA season|1914-1915]] season, the Stanley Cup was awarded exclusively to the winner of a playoff between the NHA and the [[Pacific Coast Hockey Association|PCHA]] regular season winners. The league championship was decided by a two-game total goal playoff between the Wanderers and the Senators. Ottawa won the championship, and the right to defend the Cup against [[Vancouver Millionaires| Vancouver]] in a three game series in which Vancouver won in dominating fashion. The notion of a league champion being awarded the Cup to defend ceased with that season, as the [[Portland Rosebuds]] were the PCHA champions in [[1915-16 NHA season|1915-1916]] but were not automatically accorded the Cup. Instead, they played the Montreal Canadiens for the trophy (and became the first American team to do so), which the Canadiens won in a five game series.
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Starting in the [[1914-15 NHA season|1914-1915]] season, the Stanley Cup was awarded exclusively to the winner of a playoff between the NHA and the [[Pacific Coast Hockey Association|PCHA]] regular season winners. The league championship was decided by a two-game total goal playoff between the Wanderers and the Senators. Ottawa won the championship, and the right to defend the Cup against [[Vancouver Millionaires| Vancouver]] in a three game series in which Vancouver won in dominating fashion. The notion of a league champion being awarded the Cup to defend ceased with that season, as the [[Portland Rosebuds]] were the PCHA champions in [[1915-16 NHA season|1915-1916]] but were not automatically accorded the Cup. Instead, they played the Montreal Canadiens for the trophy (and became the first American team to do so), which the Canadiens won in a five game series.
   
 
===The Fateful last season===
 
===The Fateful last season===
A historical oddity was the admission for the [[1916-17 NHA season|1916-1917]] season of the [[228th Battalion]], which had a number of hockey players enlisting with World War I. Also known as the Northern Fusiliers, the team played wearing khaki military uniforms and was the league's most popular and highest scoring club until the regiment was ordered overseas in February 1917 and the team was forced to withdraw. A scandal ensued when several stars were subsequently discharged and alleged they had been promised commissions solely to play hockey.
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A historical oddity was the admission for the [[1916-17 NHA season|1916-1917]] season of the [[228th Battalion]], which had a number of hockey players enlisting with World War I. Also known as the Northern Fusiliers, the team played wearing khaki military uniforms and was the league's most popular and highest scoring club until the regiment was ordered overseas in February 1917 and the team was forced to withdraw. A scandal ensued when several stars were subsequently discharged and alleged they had been promised commissions solely to play hockey.
   
 
At the time the Battalion dropped out the league held a meeting on February 11, [[1917]] where the league suspended the Toronto franchise also, and dispersed its players to the other clubs. The league also made a demand on Toronto's owner [[Eddie Livingstone]] to sell the franchise between April and June 1917.<ref>{{cite book|title=Deceptions and Doublecross |last=Holzman |first=Morey |year=2002 |publisher=Dundurn Press |pgs=pg. 122}}</ref> There were three factors at work; the owners disliked a five-team league because one club would be idle, the shortage of players due to the war, and disputes with Livingstone over several players.<ref>{{cite book|title=Lords of the Rinks|last=Chi-Kit Wong|first=John|pages=pp. 73-74}}</ref> Instead of selling, Livingstone launched lawsuits against the NHA related to the suspension.
 
At the time the Battalion dropped out the league held a meeting on February 11, [[1917]] where the league suspended the Toronto franchise also, and dispersed its players to the other clubs. The league also made a demand on Toronto's owner [[Eddie Livingstone]] to sell the franchise between April and June 1917.<ref>{{cite book|title=Deceptions and Doublecross |last=Holzman |first=Morey |year=2002 |publisher=Dundurn Press |pgs=pg. 122}}</ref> There were three factors at work; the owners disliked a five-team league because one club would be idle, the shortage of players due to the war, and disputes with Livingstone over several players.<ref>{{cite book|title=Lords of the Rinks|last=Chi-Kit Wong|first=John|pages=pp. 73-74}}</ref> Instead of selling, Livingstone launched lawsuits against the NHA related to the suspension.
   
The season would prove the NHA's last. The other owners met in November of 1917 to form the [[National Hockey League]], using the exact constitution and playing rules of the NHA. The Wanderers' owner was quoted as saying, "We didn't throw Livingstone out; he's still got his franchise in the old National Hockey Association. He has his team, and we wish him well. The only problem is he's playing in a one-team league."
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The season would prove the NHA's last. The other owners met in November of 1917 to form the [[National Hockey League]], using the exact constitution and playing rules of the NHA. The Wanderers' owner was quoted as saying, "We didn't throw Livingstone out; he's still got his franchise in the old National Hockey Association. He has his team, and we wish him well. The only problem is he's playing in a one-team league."
   
 
The NHA did not suspend immediately. They had launched a lawsuit against the Battalion to have it pay $3000 for leaving the league and this had yet to be heard in court. The NHL could operate in the meantime, without Livingstone.
 
The NHA did not suspend immediately. They had launched a lawsuit against the Battalion to have it pay $3000 for leaving the league and this had yet to be heard in court. The NHL could operate in the meantime, without Livingstone.
   
The NHA's officials met nearly a year later, on September 20, [[1918]], when a vote was taken to permanently suspend operations over Livingstone's objections. The final meeting of the NHA took place on December 11 where Livingstone tried unsuccessfully to get the league's shareholders to resume operations. The NHA organization was not formally dissolved for several years afterwards and [[Frank Calder]] held the presidency in both organizations.
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The NHA's officials met nearly a year later, on September 20, [[1918]], when a vote was taken to permanently suspend operations over Livingstone's objections. The final meeting of the NHA took place on December 11 where Livingstone tried unsuccessfully to get the league's shareholders to resume operations. The NHA organization was not formally dissolved for several years afterwards and [[Frank Calder]] held the presidency in both organizations.
   
 
==Teams==
 
==Teams==
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{|class=wikitable border="1"
 
{|class=wikitable border="1"
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|-
 
!Season
 
!Season
 
!Teams
 
!Teams
 
!Champion
 
!Champion
  +
 
|-
 
|-
 
|align=center|[[1910 NHA season|1910]]
 
|align=center|[[1910 NHA season|1910]]
| [[Cobalt Silver Kings]], [[Haileybury Hockey Club]], [[Montreal Canadiens]], [[Montreal Shamrocks]], [[Montreal Wanderers]], [[Ottawa Senators (original)|Ottawa Senators]], [[Renfrew Creamery Kings]]
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|| [[Cobalt Silver Kings]], [[Haileybury Hockey Club]], [[Montreal Canadiens]], [[Montreal Shamrocks]], [[Montreal Wanderers]], [[Ottawa Senators (original)|Ottawa Senators]], [[Renfrew Creamery Kings]]
| Montreal Wanderers†
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|| Montreal Wanderers†
  +
 
|-
 
|-
 
|align=center|[[1910-11 NHA season|1910-11]]
 
|align=center|[[1910-11 NHA season|1910-11]]
| Montreal Canadiens, Montreal Wanderers, Ottawa Senators, [[Quebec Bulldogs]], Renfrew Creamery Kings
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|| Montreal Canadiens, Montreal Wanderers, Ottawa Senators, [[Quebec Bulldogs]], Renfrew Creamery Kings
| Ottawa Senators†
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|| Ottawa Senators†
  +
 
|-
 
|-
 
|align=center|[[1911-12 NHA season|1911-12]]
 
|align=center|[[1911-12 NHA season|1911-12]]
| Montreal Canadiens, Montreal Wanderers, Ottawa Senators, Quebec Bulldogs
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|| Montreal Canadiens, Montreal Wanderers, Ottawa Senators, Quebec Bulldogs
| Quebec Bulldogs†
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|| Quebec Bulldogs†
  +
 
|-
 
|-
 
|align=center|[[1912-13 NHA season|1912-13]]
 
|align=center|[[1912-13 NHA season|1912-13]]
| Montreal Canadiens, Montreal Wanderers, Ottawa Senators, Quebec Bulldogs, [[Toronto Blueshirts|Toronto]], [[Toronto Tecumsehs]]
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|| Montreal Canadiens, Montreal Wanderers, Ottawa Senators, Quebec Bulldogs, [[Toronto Blueshirts|Toronto]], [[Toronto Tecumsehs]]
| Quebec Bulldogs†
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|| Quebec Bulldogs†
  +
 
|-
 
|-
 
|align=center|[[1913-14 NHA season|1913-14]]
 
|align=center|[[1913-14 NHA season|1913-14]]
| Montreal Canadiens, Montreal Wanderers, Ottawa Senators, Quebec Bulldogs, Toronto, [[Toronto Ontarios]]
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|| Montreal Canadiens, Montreal Wanderers, Ottawa Senators, Quebec Bulldogs, Toronto, [[Toronto Ontarios]]
| Toronto† (won playoff over Canadiens)
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|| Toronto† (won playoff over Canadiens)
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|-
 
|-
 
|align=center|[[1914-15 NHA season|1914-15]]
 
|align=center|[[1914-15 NHA season|1914-15]]
| Montreal Canadiens, Montreal Wanderers, Ottawa Senators, Quebec Bulldogs, Toronto, [[Toronto Shamrocks]]
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|| Montreal Canadiens, Montreal Wanderers, Ottawa Senators, Quebec Bulldogs, Toronto, [[Toronto Shamrocks]]
| Ottawa Senators (won playoff over Wanderers)
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|| Ottawa Senators (won playoff over Wanderers)
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|-
 
|-
 
|align=center|[[1915-16 NHA season|1915-16]]
 
|align=center|[[1915-16 NHA season|1915-16]]
| Montreal Canadiens, Montreal Wanderers, Ottawa Senators, Quebec Bulldogs, Toronto, Toronto Shamrocks
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|| Montreal Canadiens, Montreal Wanderers, Ottawa Senators, Quebec Bulldogs, Toronto, Toronto Shamrocks
| Montreal Canadiens†
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|| Montreal Canadiens†
  +
 
|-
 
|-
 
|align=center|[[1916-17 NHA season|1916-17]]
 
|align=center|[[1916-17 NHA season|1916-17]]
| Montreal Canadiens, Montreal Wanderers, Ottawa Senators, Quebec Bulldogs, Toronto*, [[Toronto 228th Battalion]]*
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|| Montreal Canadiens, Montreal Wanderers, Ottawa Senators, Quebec Bulldogs, Toronto*, [[Toronto 228th Battalion]]*
| Montreal Canadiens† (won playoff over Ottawa)
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|| Montreal Canadiens† (won playoff over Ottawa)
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  +
|-
 
|}
 
|}
   
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===Team Origins===
 
===Team Origins===
 
{|class=wikitable border="1"
 
{|class=wikitable border="1"
  +
|-
 
!Team
 
!Team
 
!Years
 
!Years
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|[[Cobalt Silver Kings]]||1909-10||new, players taken over by [[Quebec Bulldogs]] in 1911
 
|[[Cobalt Silver Kings]]||1909-10||new, players taken over by [[Quebec Bulldogs]] in 1911
 
|-
 
|-
|[[Haileybury Hockey Club]]||1909-10||new, players taken over by [[Montreal Canadiens]] for 1911
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|[[Haileybury Hockey Club]]||1909-10||new, players taken over by [[Montreal Canadiens]] for 1911
 
|-
 
|-
 
|[[Montreal Canadiens]]||1909-17||new, known as Les Canadiens in 1910 season
 
|[[Montreal Canadiens]]||1909-17||new, known as Les Canadiens in 1910 season
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|[[Toronto Blueshirts]]||1912-17||new, former O'Brien franchise
 
|[[Toronto Blueshirts]]||1912-17||new, former O'Brien franchise
 
|-
 
|-
|[[Toronto Tecumsehs]]<br />renamed [[Toronto Ontarios]], 1913-1914<br />renamed [[Toronto Shamrocks]], 1915
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|[[Toronto Tecumsehs]]<br> renamed [[Toronto Ontarios]], 1913-1914<br> renamed [[Toronto Shamrocks]], 1915
|1912-16||new, former O'Brien franchise
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||1912-16||new, former O'Brien franchise
 
|-
 
|-
 
|[[Toronto 228th Battalion]]||1916-17||new, took place of Tecumsehs/Ontarios/Shamrocks for 1916-17 season, composed of professional hockey players in military
 
|[[Toronto 228th Battalion]]||1916-17||new, took place of Tecumsehs/Ontarios/Shamrocks for 1916-17 season, composed of professional hockey players in military
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|-
 
|}
 
|}
   
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* [[List of pre-NHL seasons]]
 
* [[List of pre-NHL seasons]]
 
{{NHL}}
 
{{NHL}}
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[[Category:Leagues]]
 
[[Category:Leagues]]
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