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[[File:The Cold War UofM v.s MSU.jpg|thumb|left|Held in 2001, the Cold War launched the modern outdoor game phenomenon|alt=Two teams of many hockey players stand at either end of a rink built on top of a football field as thousands of people look on from the stands.]]
 
[[File:The Cold War UofM v.s MSU.jpg|thumb|left|Held in 2001, the Cold War launched the modern outdoor game phenomenon|alt=Two teams of many hockey players stand at either end of a rink built on top of a football field as thousands of people look on from the stands.]]
   
The NHL's first regular season outdoor game ensued: the [[2003 Heritage Classic]], hosted by the [[Edmonton Oilers]], who lost by a 4–3 score to the [[Montreal Canadiens]]. Though the game was played in frigid temperatures that went as low as −18 °C, −30 °C (−22 °F) with wind chill , it drew over 57,000 fans and was hailed as a success.<ref>{{citation |last=Dolezar |first=John |url=http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/2003/writers/jon_dolezar/11/23/heritage.classic/ |title=Instant Classic |publisher=CNN Sports Illustrated |date=2003-11-23 |accessdate=2011-01-02}}</ref> The league followed it up in 2008 when it inaugurated the [[NHL Winter Classic]] as an annual event to be held on New Year's Day. The [[2008 NHL Winter Classic]], held in [[Buffalo, New York|Buffalo]], set an NHL attendance record of 71,217.<ref name="2008WC" /> The [[2014 NHL Winter Classic]], held at [[Michigan Stadium]] in [[Ann Arbor, Michigan]], set a new NHL attendance record of 105,491.<ref>http://espn.go.com/nhl/recap?gameId=400484853</ref> In 2011, for the first time the NHL hosted two outdoor games, the [[2011 NHL Winter Classic|Winter Classic]] in [[Pittsburgh]], and the [[2011 Heritage Classic|Heritage Classic]] in [[Calgary]].
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The NHL's first regular season outdoor game ensued: the [[2003 Heritage Classic]], hosted by the [[Edmonton Oilers]], who lost by a 4–3 score to the [[Montreal Canadiens]]. Though the game was played in frigid temperatures that went as low as {{convert|-19|°C|°F}}, it drew over 57,000 fans and was hailed as a success.<ref>{{citation |last=Dolezar |first=John |url=http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/2003/writers/jon_dolezar/11/23/heritage.classic/ |title=Instant Classic |publisher=CNN Sports Illustrated |date=2003-11-23 |accessdate=2011-01-02}}</ref> The league followed it up in 2008 when it inaugurated the [[NHL Winter Classic]] as an annual event to be held on New Year's Day. The [[2008 NHL Winter Classic]], held in [[Buffalo, New York|Buffalo]], set an NHL attendance record of 71,217.<ref name="2008WC" /> The [[2014 NHL Winter Classic]], held at [[Michigan Stadium]] in [[Ann Arbor, Michigan]], set a new NHL attendance record of 105,491.<ref>http://espn.go.com/nhl/recap?gameId=400484853</ref> In 2011, for the first time the NHL hosted two outdoor games, the [[2011 NHL Winter Classic|Winter Classic]] in [[Pittsburgh]], and the [[2011 Heritage Classic|Heritage Classic]] in [[Calgary]].
   
 
Outdoor games have been held by many leagues around the world. The [[National League A|Swiss league]]'s [[SCL Tigers]] hosted [[SC Bern]] in an outdoor game to celebrate the 100th Tigers–Bern Derby in 2007.<ref name="TigersBernDerby">{{cite web |last=Von Zaugg |first=Klaus |last2=Pflugshaupt |first2=Peter |url=http://www.blick.ch/sport/eishockey/artikel53661 |title=Lob von Sämi für das Hockey-Spektakel |language=German |publisher=Blick.ch |date=2007-01-15 |accessdate=2011-01-02}}</ref> In 2009, Swedish clubs [[Frölunda HC]] and [[Färjestads BK]] played a game at [[Ullevi]]. The game broke the former European league-game record for attendance at that time with a crowd of 31,144 (beaten in February 2011 when Jokerit and HIFK played in front of 36,644 spectators).<ref name="SELRecord">{{cite web |last=Andersson |first=Pär |url=http://www.dn.se/sport/ishockey/publikkaos-nar-europarekordet-slogs-1.1020220 |title=Publikkaos när Europarekordet slogs |language=Swedish |publisher=''Dagens Nyheter'' | date=2009-12-28 | accessdate=2011-01-02}}</ref> The game also broke the Swedish record crowd of 23,192, set in the same stadium in 1962.<ref>{{cite news |last=Klein |first=Jeff Z. |url=http://slapshot.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/12/28/122809-big-crowd-for-outdoor-game-but-in-sweden/ |title=12/28/09: Big Crowd for Outdoor Game . . . but in Sweden |work=The New York Times |date=2009-12-28 |accessdate=2011-01-03}}</ref> The current world record for attendance at a hockey game was set in December 2010, in an [[National Collegiate Athletic Association|NCAA]] game between the same two teams that participated in the Cold War. In this game, [[Michigan Wolverines men's ice hockey|Michigan]] hosted [[Michigan State Spartans men's ice hockey|Michigan State]] in an event known as [[The Big Chill at the Big House]]. The game had an announced attendance of 113,411 spectators, but ''[[Guinness World Records]]'' certified the attendance as 104,173 based on tickets scanned.<ref name="BigChill" /><ref name="Guinness World Records attendance" /><ref name="GuinnesssJanela">{{cite web|last=Janela|first=Mike|title=Highest ice hockey game attendance|url=http://community.guinnessworldrecords.com/_Highest-ice-hockey-game-attendance/BLOG/3099369/7691.html|work=guinnessworldrecords.com|date=14 December 2010|accessdate=2011-01-04 }}</ref> The record had previously been set at the opening game of the [[2010 IIHF World Championship]], in which the hosting [[Germany men's national ice hockey team|Germans]] defeated the [[United States men's national ice hockey team|United States]] 2–1 before a then-record 77,803 fans. Although the game was held at [[Veltins-Arena]] in [[Gelsenkirchen]], it was not technically an outdoor game, as the stadium's retractable roof was closed due to [[International Ice Hockey Federation]] regulations.<ref name="2010WHC">{{cite web |last=Adams |first=Alan |url=http://www.iihf.com/channels10/iihf-world-championship-wc10/news/news-singleview-world-championship/article/historic-win-for-germany.html |title=Historic win for Germany |publisher=International Ice Hockey Federation |date=2010-05-07 |accessdate=2011-01-02}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.nhl.com/ice/news.htm?id=398228 |title=Germany 2010 hosts aim for world-record 75,976 in Gelsenkrichen's Veltins-Arena |publisher=National Hockey League |date=2008-12-15 |accessdate=2011-01-07}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.iihf.com/home-of-hockey/club-events/news-singleview-club-events/article/113411-see-outdoor-game.html|title=113,411 see outdoor game|publisher=International Ice Hockey Federation |date=2010-12-12 |accessdate=2011-01-07}}</ref> In 2010, Färjestad and Frölunda again played an outdoor game against each other, this time in [[Karlstad]]. 15,274 spectators saw Färjestad win the game 5–2.<ref name="2010 SEL outdoor game" />
 
Outdoor games have been held by many leagues around the world. The [[National League A|Swiss league]]'s [[SCL Tigers]] hosted [[SC Bern]] in an outdoor game to celebrate the 100th Tigers–Bern Derby in 2007.<ref name="TigersBernDerby">{{cite web |last=Von Zaugg |first=Klaus |last2=Pflugshaupt |first2=Peter |url=http://www.blick.ch/sport/eishockey/artikel53661 |title=Lob von Sämi für das Hockey-Spektakel |language=German |publisher=Blick.ch |date=2007-01-15 |accessdate=2011-01-02}}</ref> In 2009, Swedish clubs [[Frölunda HC]] and [[Färjestads BK]] played a game at [[Ullevi]]. The game broke the former European league-game record for attendance at that time with a crowd of 31,144 (beaten in February 2011 when Jokerit and HIFK played in front of 36,644 spectators).<ref name="SELRecord">{{cite web |last=Andersson |first=Pär |url=http://www.dn.se/sport/ishockey/publikkaos-nar-europarekordet-slogs-1.1020220 |title=Publikkaos när Europarekordet slogs |language=Swedish |publisher=''Dagens Nyheter'' | date=2009-12-28 | accessdate=2011-01-02}}</ref> The game also broke the Swedish record crowd of 23,192, set in the same stadium in 1962.<ref>{{cite news |last=Klein |first=Jeff Z. |url=http://slapshot.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/12/28/122809-big-crowd-for-outdoor-game-but-in-sweden/ |title=12/28/09: Big Crowd for Outdoor Game . . . but in Sweden |work=The New York Times |date=2009-12-28 |accessdate=2011-01-03}}</ref> The current world record for attendance at a hockey game was set in December 2010, in an [[National Collegiate Athletic Association|NCAA]] game between the same two teams that participated in the Cold War. In this game, [[Michigan Wolverines men's ice hockey|Michigan]] hosted [[Michigan State Spartans men's ice hockey|Michigan State]] in an event known as [[The Big Chill at the Big House]]. The game had an announced attendance of 113,411 spectators, but ''[[Guinness World Records]]'' certified the attendance as 104,173 based on tickets scanned.<ref name="BigChill" /><ref name="Guinness World Records attendance" /><ref name="GuinnesssJanela">{{cite web|last=Janela|first=Mike|title=Highest ice hockey game attendance|url=http://community.guinnessworldrecords.com/_Highest-ice-hockey-game-attendance/BLOG/3099369/7691.html|work=guinnessworldrecords.com|date=14 December 2010|accessdate=2011-01-04 }}</ref> The record had previously been set at the opening game of the [[2010 IIHF World Championship]], in which the hosting [[Germany men's national ice hockey team|Germans]] defeated the [[United States men's national ice hockey team|United States]] 2–1 before a then-record 77,803 fans. Although the game was held at [[Veltins-Arena]] in [[Gelsenkirchen]], it was not technically an outdoor game, as the stadium's retractable roof was closed due to [[International Ice Hockey Federation]] regulations.<ref name="2010WHC">{{cite web |last=Adams |first=Alan |url=http://www.iihf.com/channels10/iihf-world-championship-wc10/news/news-singleview-world-championship/article/historic-win-for-germany.html |title=Historic win for Germany |publisher=International Ice Hockey Federation |date=2010-05-07 |accessdate=2011-01-02}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.nhl.com/ice/news.htm?id=398228 |title=Germany 2010 hosts aim for world-record 75,976 in Gelsenkrichen's Veltins-Arena |publisher=National Hockey League |date=2008-12-15 |accessdate=2011-01-07}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.iihf.com/home-of-hockey/club-events/news-singleview-club-events/article/113411-see-outdoor-game.html|title=113,411 see outdoor game|publisher=International Ice Hockey Federation |date=2010-12-12 |accessdate=2011-01-07}}</ref> In 2010, Färjestad and Frölunda again played an outdoor game against each other, this time in [[Karlstad]]. 15,274 spectators saw Färjestad win the game 5–2.<ref name="2010 SEL outdoor game" />

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