Playing hockey games outdoors, in soccer, football and baseball stadiums, is an increasingly popular trend for junior, college, professional and international competitions in the 21st century. The popularity of outdoor games has resulted in attendance records in several leagues, and the current world record total of 104,173 was set at The Big Chill at the Big House, a December 2010 National Collegiate Athletic Association game between the University of Michigan and Michigan State University.
While other indoor sports such as basketball have been able to use outdoor tennis courts and even aircraft carriers for outdoor games, this is rarely possible in ice hockey because a regulation rink is generally much wider and longer than the playing surface available in either of those venues. Ice hockey has however been played at Stade Roland Garros, venue of the French Open. Staging a Vysshaya liga game on the Russian carrier Admiral Kuznetsov has been considered as well. To compensate for the varying weather conditions at outdoor ice hockey games, the teams may switch sides after each half of a period.
In the early history of hockey, games were played outdoors on rivers, lakes, and other naturally occurring ice surfaces. In fact, the first indoor game, held in 1875, was a novelty at the time, yet after that the game moved inside. While the first Olympic hockey tournament, held in 1920, was played indoors, games at the first Winter Olympics in 1924 were the first of several such tournaments to be played outdoors. Games at the World Championships were occasionally played outdoors, including the 1957 gold medal game between the Soviet Union and Sweden at the Lenin Stadium in Moscow. The attendance at that game was approximately 55,000, a number that stood as a record for more than 40 years. In 1954, the Detroit Red Wings of the National Hockey League (NHL) played an exhibition game on an outdoor ice surface against the inmates of Michigan's Marquette Branch Prison.
While the New York Rangers and the Los Angeles Kings played an NHL exhibition game in 1991 outside Caesars Palace in Las Vegas, the modern trend for outdoor competition began in 2001. That year, Michigan State University and the University of Michigan played to a 3–3 tie in an outdoor game known as the Cold War before 74,554 fans. The game was held at Michigan State's Spartan Stadium, with the hockey rink set up in the middle of the football field.
The NHL's first regular season outdoor game ensued: the 2003 Heritage Classic, hosted by the Edmonton Oilers, who lost by a 4–3 score to the Montreal Canadiens. Though the game was played in frigid temperatures that went as low as −18 °C, −30 °C (−22 °F) with wind chill , it drew over 57,000 fans and was hailed as a success. The league followed it up in 2008 when it inaugurated the NHL Winter Classic as an annual event to be held on New Year's Day. The 2008 NHL Winter Classic, held in Buffalo, set an NHL attendance record of 71,217. The 2014 NHL Winter Classic, held at Michigan Stadium in Ann Arbor, Michigan, set a new NHL attendance record of 105,491. In 2011, for the first time the NHL hosted two outdoor games, the Winter Classic in Pittsburgh, and the Heritage Classic in Calgary.
Outdoor games have been held by many leagues around the world. The Swiss league's SCL Tigers hosted SC Bern in an outdoor game to celebrate the 100th Tigers–Bern Derby in 2007. In 2009, Swedish clubs Frölunda HC and Färjestads BK played a game at Ullevi. The game broke the former European league-game record for attendance at that time with a crowd of 31,144 (beaten in February 2011 when Jokerit and HIFK played in front of 36,644 spectators). The game also broke the Swedish record crowd of 23,192, set in the same stadium in 1962. The current world record for attendance at a hockey game was set in December 2010, in an NCAA game between the same two teams that participated in the Cold War. In this game, Michigan hosted Michigan State in an event known as The Big Chill at the Big House. The game had an announced attendance of 113,411 spectators, but Guinness World Records certified the attendance as 104,173 based on tickets scanned. The record had previously been set at the opening game of the 2010 IIHF World Championship, in which the hosting Germans defeated the United States 2–1 before a then-record 77,803 fans. Although the game was held at Veltins-Arena in Gelsenkirchen, it was not technically an outdoor game, as the stadium's retractable roof was closed due to International Ice Hockey Federation regulations. In 2010, Färjestad and Frölunda again played an outdoor game against each other, this time in Karlstad. 15,274 spectators saw Färjestad win the game 5–2.
Outdoor games have proven to be immensely popular with fans. For the 2003 Heritage Classic, the NHL received over 900,000 requests from all over the world for a chance to buy one of the 57,167 tickets available. CBC's Hockey Night in Canada telecast of the game drew 2.7 million viewers, a record for a regular season game for the half-century old television program. In the United States, the Winter Classics have been a ratings winner; 4.56 million people watched the 2011 Winter Classic, and the game led to a ratings win for NBC in the coveted 18–49 age group despite the fact that poor weather forced the NHL to move the start time of the game back several hours on less than a day's notice. It became the most watched NHL regular season game in the last 36 years. The games have been credited as causing increased interest in hockey in the United States. In Russia, the Kontinental Hockey League (KHL) hosted its first All-Star Game in 2009 in Moscow's Red Square. The league used the location to promote the KHL amidst the global financial crisis.
Though games have been held outdoors since the sport's earliest days, this list contains only those held since the 2001 Cold War popularized the trend of holding outdoor games as events.
- 1. ^ The SEL Outdoor Classic was renamed the SHL Outdoor Classic due to the league name change in June 2013.
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- ↑ Red Wings Played Prison Hockey Team In 1954. Greatest Hockey Legends.com (2010-03-24). Retrieved on 2011-01-07.
- ↑ Huskey, Melody (2008-12-31). Kings no stranger to outdoor game. Los Angeles Kings Hockey Club. Retrieved on 2011-01-02.
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- ↑ Dolezar, John (2003-11-23), Instant Classic, CNN Sports Illustrated, <http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/2003/writers/jon_dolezar/11/23/heritage.classic/>. Retrieved on 2011-01-02
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- ↑ Adams, Alan (2010-05-07). Historic win for Germany. International Ice Hockey Federation. Retrieved on 2011-01-02.
- ↑ "Germany 2010 hosts aim for world-record 75,976 in Gelsenkrichen's Veltins-Arena", National Hockey League, 2008-12-15. Retrieved on 2011-01-07.
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- ↑ Wyshnyski, Greg (2011-01-02). NHL Winter Classic gives NBC key ratings win in prime time. Yahoo! Sports. Retrieved on 2011-01-02.
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- ↑ Edmonton Oilers Community Foundation. Oilers Stage Heritage Classic. Edmonton Oilers Community Foundation. Retrieved on 2011-01-03.
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- ↑ Albright, David (2006-02-14). On top of the ol' Tundra, a great day for hockey. ESPN. Retrieved on 2011-01-02.
- ↑ Even outside, Red Wings prove superior to Blackhawks. ESPN (2009-01-01). Retrieved on 2011-01-02.
- ↑ Open-air Ice Hockey spectacle. GstaadLife (2009-02-13). Retrieved on 2011-01-19.
- ↑ McDonough, Brian (2009-02-16). Outdoor game earns high marks. North America Hockey League. Retrieved on 2011-01-02.
- ↑ http://jegkorong.blog.hu/2009/12/27/ferencvarosi_gyozelem_a_winter_classicon
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- ↑ Rourke, Shawn P. (2010-01-01). Bruins walk off Fenway field a Classic winner. National Hockey League. Retrieved on 2011-01-02.
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- ↑ Villach triumphiert im Freiluft-Derby (German). Die Presse (2010-01-09). Retrieved on 2011-01-02.
- ↑ 36.0 36.1 Baggot, Andy (2010-02-09). Can Camp Randall Hockey Classic do it again?. madison.com. Retrieved on 2011-01-02.
- ↑ AHL Record Crowd of 21,508 Sees Crunch Beat Binghamton. Syracuse Crunch Hockey Club (2010-02-21). Retrieved on 2010-11-04.
- ↑ Outdoor game another success in Fairbanks. North America Hockey League (2010-03-15). Retrieved on 2011-01-02.
- ↑ Historic win for Germany. Internatinoal Ice Hockey Federation (2010-05-07). Retrieved on 2010-05-07.
- ↑ Spencer, Donna. "Alberta junior hockey players faceoff outdoors", Globe and Mail, 2010-11-26. Retrieved on 2011-01-02.
- ↑ Adrian,Concordia to play at Michigan Stadium. USCHO (2010-10-29). Retrieved on 2011-02-10.
- ↑ Organizers limited the number of tickets available to far fewer than could be accommodated or were desired, a move that caused controversy.
- ↑ Roarke, Shawn P. (2010-12-31). Alumni Game Ends In Tie; Lemieux Gets 2 Points. Retrieved on 2010-12-31.
- ↑ Capitals down Penguins in wet conditions at Winter Classic. The Sports Network (2011-01-01). Retrieved on 2011-01-02.
- ↑ Pardubice wins Open Air game at home. Czech Hockey Report (2011-01-02). Retrieved on 2011-01-07.
- ↑ Merk, Martin (2011-01-04). Hockey fiesta in Mexico. International Ice Hockey Federation. Retrieved on 2011-01-04.
- ↑ Trimmer, Dave (2011-01-15). Chiefs, outdoor game smashing success. The Spokseman-Review. Retrieved on 2011-01-15.
- ↑ Killeen, Mike. "Blazers take to the ice (outside)", January 17, 2011.
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- ↑ Tulosseuranta: Jokerit 3–4 HIFK (Finnish). SM-liiga (2011-02-05). Retrieved on 2011-02-16.
- ↑ Box Score UConn 3 Sacred Heart 1 from UConn Athletic Website.
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- ↑ Jones, Terry. "Quelle difference!", Calgary Sun, 2011-02-20, p. HC14.
- ↑ The Canadian Press. "Bourque Scores Twice as Flames Down Habs at Heritage Classic", TSN.ca, 2011-02-20. Retrieved on 2011-02-20.
- ↑ Odland, Kristen (2011-02-21). Calgary Hitmen lose to Regina before record crowd. Calgary Herald. Retrieved on 2011-02-21.
- ↑ Slaget om Siljan. Retrieved on 2012-01-14.
- ↑ Fairbanks embraces outdoor game to its fullest. North America Hockey League (2010-03-15). Retrieved on 2011-01-02.
- ↑ Gustafsson, Peter (2011-12-10). En grym upplevelse (Swedish). Jönköpingsnytt. Retrieved on 2011-12-11.
- ↑ Hallgren, Rasmus (2011-12-10). Matchrapport: HV71-Linköping 0-1 efter förlängning (Swedish). Linköpings HC. Retrieved on 2011-12-11.
- ↑ http://www.nhl.com/ice/news.htm?id=609106
- ↑ Associated Press. "Rangers turn away Flyers as Mike Rupp, Henrik Lundqvist fuel Winter Classic rally", ESPN.com, 2012-01-02. Retrieved on 2012-01-03.
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- ↑ 67.0 67.1 "Matchups set for Frozen Fenway", Boston.com, 2011-08-27. Retrieved on 2011-09-14.
- ↑ http://www.uscho.com/2011/12/02/providence-to-host-dartmouth-in-outdoor-womens-game-at-fenway/
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- ↑ Ohio State to play Michigan in hockey at Progressive Field on Jan. 15. The Canadian Press (2011-08-11). Retrieved on 2011-08-11.
- ↑ Frozen Diamond Faceoff: Ohio State Buckeyes and Michigan Wolverines hockey facts and histories. The Cleveland Plain Dealer (2012-01-15). Retrieved on 2012-02-08.
- ↑ 73.0 73.1 OUA and Hamilton Bulldogs partner for OUA men's and women's hockey Outdoor Classic. Retrieved on 2012-01-17.
- ↑ Maple Leaf old-timers hang on for 6-5 win over Habs. Toronto Star (2012-01-21). Retrieved on 2012-01-21.
- ↑ http://www.talviklassikko.fi/
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- ↑ Larsson, Patrik (2012-12-08). Iskall Lindholm – i iskallt Gävle (Swedish). Ged. Retrieved on 2013-01-06.
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- ↑ "Deutsche Eishockey-Liga: Nürnberg siegt im "Winter Game"", Spiegel Online, 5 January 2013. Retrieved on 8 October 2014. (German)
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- ↑ Gullbrand, Johannes (2013-12-14). Skellefteå segrare i julmatchen (Swedish). shl.se. Swedish Hockey League. Retrieved on 2013-12-14.
- ↑ Karlberg, Peter (2013-05-30). Frölunda HC möter Skellefteå AIK utomhus på Gamla Ullevi (Swedish). shl.se. Swedish Hockey League. Retrieved on 2013-06-24.
- ↑ http://www.uscho.com/box/mens-hockey/2013/12/15/nazareth-vs-geneseo/
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- ↑ Allen, Kevin (2014-01-01). Maple Leafs win Winter Classic in shootout. USA Today. Retrieved on 2014-01-01.
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- ↑ "Beacons Freeze Salem State in Memorable Citi Frozen Fenway Matchup", January 10, 2014.
- ↑ "Trinity Loses To Williams 4-2 At Frozen Fenway", January 7, 2014.
- ↑ "No. 5 Norwich Edges No. 6 Men's Ice Hockey, 1-0, At Fenway Park", January 9, 2014.
- ↑ "River Hawks Frustrated at Frozen Fenway", January 11, 2014.
- ↑ "Lomberg, Shore and Hutton Tally Two Goals Each As Maine Skates Past BU 7-3 at Fenway Park", January 11, 2014.
- ↑ Lausanne Hockey Club. Lausanne Hockey Club "Winter Classic 2014", January 12, 2014.
- ↑ "Mavericks Bested by No. 1 Minnesota Friday at the Hockey City Classic", January 17, 2014.
- ↑ "Buckeyes Drop 1-0 Game to No. 1 Minnesota in Hockey City Classic", January 18, 2014.
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- ↑ "BGSU And Robert Morris To Play Outdoor Hockey Game", February 3, 2014.
- ↑ "DEL Winter Game bricht Europarekord: 51.125 Zuschauer in Düsseldorf", January 10, 2015. (German)
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- ↑ Grant, Kylington and Shore Lead Heat to 3-2 Win at Raley Field. Stockton Heat (December 19, 2015). Retrieved on January 20, 2016.
- ↑ http://www.nhl.com/ice/news.htm?id=794629
- ↑ http://www.del-2.org/nachrichten/del2/2540-huskies_gewinnen_del2-auftaktspektakel_vor_30000.html
- ↑ http://globalnews.ca/news/3020890/heritage-classic-scoreless-following-first-period/
- ↑ http://www.erstebankliga.at/stats-ebel/spiel?gameId=a259f46e-d332-497a-b849-e42bee945c1e&divisionId=810
- ↑ http://www.erstebankliga.at/stats-ebel/spiel?gameId=19e251dc-f7ae-4bdf-9433-d896458b501e&divisionId=810
- ↑ http://www.lequipe.fr/Hockey-sur-glace/Actualites/Grenoble-s-impose-au-parc-ol-record-d-affluence-pour-un-match-de-hockey/764664
- ↑ http://lesportdauphinois.com/2016/12/31/winter-game-25000-personnes-parc-ol-vraiment/
- ↑ "Fans Brave Dropping Temperatures For NHL Stadium Series Game", KDKA, February 25, 2017. Retrieved on March 6, 2017.
- ↑ http://www.tsn.ca/sources-outdoor-game-planned-for-2018-world-juniors-in-buffalo-1.403558
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