Ice Hockey Wiki

For the league of the same name that ran from 2007 to 2010, please see International Hockey League (2007–2010).

International Hockey League
International Hockey League (1945–2001) logo.png
International Hockey League (1945–2001)
Sport Ice hockey
Founded 1945
Country(ies) Flag of the United States United States
Flag of Canada Canada
Ceased 2001
Last champion(s) Orlando Solar Bears
Most championships Cincinnati Mohawks (5)

The International Hockey League (IHL) was a minor professional ice hockey league in the United States and Canada that operated from 1945 to 2001. The International Hockey League served as the National Hockey League's alternate farm system to the American Hockey League (AHL). After 56 years of operation with financial instability, the International Hockey League ceased operations after the 2000-01 season. Six teams from the IHL merged into the rival American Hockey League as expansion teams in 2001.


Early years

The IHL was formed in December 1945 and initially consisted of four cross-border teams in Detroit and Windsor, Ontario. In 1947, a team from Toledo, Ohio joined the league, and the following year the IHL expanded significantly, with teams in four additional U.S. cities. The expansion did not take hold, and for 1949–50, the league was back down to teams in Detroit and Windsor as well as two nearby Canadian cities, Sarnia, Ontario and Chatham, Ontario. Windsor dropped out in 1950, and expansion into the U.S. began again, with Toledo rejoining the league and new teams in Grand Rapids, Michigan (1950), Troy, Ohio, (1951), Cincinnati (1952), Fort Wayne, Indiana (1952), and Milwaukee (1952). At the same time, the last Canadian team left the league in 1952, when the Chatham Maroons pulled out. Three new U.S. cities were added in 1953. The league would expand and shrink between five and nine teams through the 1950s, with another major expansion in 1959. In the 1962–63 season, the IHL played an interlocking schedule with the NHL-owned Eastern Professional Hockey League, which itself folded in 1963. After 11 seasons as a strictly U.S.-based league, the IHL admitted two Canadian teams in 1963, with the Windsor Bulldogs and the return of the Chatham Maroons. Both teams dropped out after one season. The league did not have a Canadian team again until 1996.

Major market expansion

Starting in the late 1960s, the IHL's quality of play significantly improved. By the mid-1970s it was on par with the American Hockey League (AHL), the longtime top feeder league for the National Hockey League. Many IHL teams became the top farm teams of NHL teams. In 1984, the league absorbed many surviving members of the Central Hockey League, which had ceased operations. Beginning in the late 1980s, the IHL began an expansion into major markets such as Atlanta, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Denver, Houston, Indianapolis, Kansas City, Las Vegas, Minneapolis-Saint Paul, Orlando, Phoenix, Salt Lake City, San Antonio, San Diego, and San Francisco. Many of these were markets that had been served by the defunct World Hockey Association or abandoned by the NHL, but the IHL also placed teams in markets that already had NHL teams, such as Chicago, Detroit, and Long Beach (near Los Angeles). In the mid-1990s, the IHL moved its Atlanta and Minneapolis–Saint Paul franchises to Quebec City and Winnipeg respectively, restoring the league's Canadian presence and filling the void left by the departure of the NHL's Quebec Nordiques and Winnipeg Jets.

The league's expansion into larger markets was rapid, spearheaded by media mogul Ted Turner, and many of the smaller-market teams (such as Fort Wayne and Kalamazoo) fell away, joining lower-level leagues such as the United Hockey League and the East Coast Hockey League.

Decline and collapse

The IHL's expansion into NHL markets put a strain on relationships between the leagues. There was some speculation that the IHL was intending to compete directly with the NHL, especially when a lock-out in 1994 threatened to wipe out the NHL season.[1] However, in the 1995-96 season, the IHL's "soft" salary cap was just $1.5 million,[2] while the lowest NHL team payroll that season was $11.4 million.[3]

In response, many NHL clubs shifted their affiliations to the AHL, and by 1997–98, only four of 18 IHL teams had NHL affiliations.[4] With the loss of subsidized salaries, high expansion fees (by the end the league was charging as much as $8 million US for new teams), exploding travel costs, the NHL itself moving back into some of its markets, and the league's rapid expansion proved a critical strain, the 2000-01 season ended up being the final season of the IHL. The IHL did not merge into the American Hockey League. Instead, six franchises from the IHL merged into the AHL as expansion franchises and the IHL ceased operations.

The six IHL franchises that were admitted into the American Hockey League as expansion teams were the Chicago Wolves, Grand Rapids Griffins, Houston Aeros, Utah Grizzlies, Milwaukee Admirals and Manitoba Moose for the 2001-02 season. Among them, the Chicago Wolves (2002, 2008), Houston Aeros (2003), and Milwaukee Admirals (2004) have all won Calder Cup titles since joining the AHL from the IHL. The Cincinnati Cyclones were admitted back to the East Coast Hockey League, which hosted the team from 1990-1992 before they moved to the IHL. The Orlando Solar Bears (the final IHL champions) and the Kansas City Blades were not admitted into the AHL because their owner, Rich DeVos, also owned the Griffins, and could only own one AHL franchise. The league's other two teams (the Cleveland Lumberjacks & the Detroit Vipers) ceased operations with the league.

Two of the former IHL teams that moved to the AHL have since relocated, as the Utah Grizzlies moved to Cleveland, Ohio to become the Lake Erie Monsters in 2007, and the Manitoba Moose moved to St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador to become the St. John's IceCaps in 2011. As well, two IHL franchises have been relaunched in the ECHL since the IHL's demise, those being the Utah Grizzlies (formerly the Lexington Men O' War) in 2005 and the expansion Orlando Solar Bears in 2012. Also, the Worcester IceCats moved to Peoria, Illinois in 2005 and took the name of yet another former IHL franchise, the Peoria Rivermen.

Trophies and awards

See Also List of International Hockey League trophies

Award name Seasons Description
Turner Cup 1945–2001 League playoff champions.
Fred A. Huber Trophy 1945–2001 Regular season champions.
Commissioner's Trophy 1984–2001 Coach of the Year.
Leo P. Lamoureux Memorial Trophy 1946–2001 Top point scorer.
Known as "George H. Wilkinson Trophy" (1946-1960).
James Gatschene Memorial Trophy 1946–2001 MVP / Sportsmanship.
Norman R. "Bud" Poile Trophy 1988–2001 Playoffs MVP.
Gary F. Longman Memorial Trophy 1961–2001 Rookie of the Year.
Known as "Leading Rookie Award" (1961-1967).
Ken McKenzie Trophy 1977–2001 American-born Rookie of the Year.
Governor's Trophy 1964–2001 Best defenseman.
Known as "Larry D. Gordon Trophy" (1998-2001).
James Norris Memorial Trophy 1955–2001 Goaltenders with lowest GAA.
John Cullen Award 1996–2001 Comeback Player of the Year.
Known as "Comeback Player of the Year Award" (1996-1998).
Ironman Award 1988–2001 Durability / Longevity.
IHL Man of the Year 1992–2001 Outstanding community service.
Also known as "I. John Snider, II Trophy."


Team Location Arena Tenure Notes
Detroit Auto Club Detroit, Michigan Olympia 1945-1951 folded
Detroit Bright's Goodyears Detroit, Michigan Olympia 1945-1949 folded
Windsor Gotfredsons Windsor, Ontario Windsor Arena 1945-1946 renamed Windsor Staffords
Windsor Spitfires Windsor, Ontario Windsor Arena 1945-1947 renamed Windsor Hettche Spitfires
Detroit Metal Mouldings Detroit, Michigan Olympia 1946-1948 renamed Detroit Jerry Lynch
Windsor Staffords Windsor, Ontario Windsor Arena 1946-1948 renamed Windsor Ryan Cretes
Windsor Hettche Spitfires Windsor, Ontario Windsor Arena 1947-1949 folded
Toledo Mercurys Toledo, Ohio Toledo Sports Arena 1947-1948 split into two teams for 1948-49 season
Akron Americans Akron, Ohio Iceland Arena 1948-1949 folded
Detroit Jerry Lynch Detroit, Michigan Olympia 1948-1949 folded
Louisville Blades Louisville, Kentucky Louisville Gardens 1948-1949 joined United States Hockey League (1945-1951)
Milwaukee Clarks Milwaukee, Wisconsin Coliseum at State Fair Park 1948-1949 joined Eastern Amateur Hockey League
Muncie Flyers Muncie, Indiana Gibson Arena 1948-1949 folded; arena was being converted to a roller skating rink
Toledo Mercurys North Toledo, Ohio Toledo Sports Arena 1948-1949 revert to one team for 1949-50
Toledo Mercurys South Toledo, Ohio Toledo Sports Arena 1948-1949 revert to one team for 1949-50
Windsor Ryan Cretes Windsor, Ontario Windsor Arena 1948-1950 folded
Chatham Maroons (IHL) Chatham, Ontario Chatham Memorial Arena 1949-1952 joined OHA Senior A Hockey League (1929-1979)
Detroit Hettche Detroit, Michigan Olympia 1949-1952 folded
Sarnia Sailors Sarnia, Ontario Sarnia Arena 1949-1951 joined OHA Senior A Hockey League (1929-1979)
Grand Rapids Rockets Grand Rapids, Michigan Stadium Arena 1950-1956

relocated to Huntington, West Virginia; renamed Huntington Hornets

Toledo Mercurys Toledo, Ohio Toledo Sports Arena 1950-1955 split 1955-56 between Toledo and Marion, Ohio
Troy Bruins Troy, Ohio Hobart Arena 1951-1959 folded
Cincinnati Mohawks Cincinnati, Ohio Cincinnati Gardens 1952-1958 folded
Fort Wayne Komets Fort Wayne, Indiana Allen County War Memorial Coliseum 1952-1990 relocated to Albany, New York; renamed Albany Choppers
Milwaukee Chiefs Milwaukee, Wisconsin Milwaukee Arena 1952-1954 folded
Johnstown Jets Johnstown, Pennsylvania Cambria County War Memorial Arena 1953-1955 joined Eastern Hockey League (1933-1973)
Marion Barons Marion, Ohio Veterans Memorial Coliseum (Marion) 1953-1954 Suspended operations August 12, 1954
Louisville Shooting Stars Louisville, Kentucky Louisville Gardens 1953-1954 folded
Indianapolis Chiefs Indianapolis, Indiana Indiana State Fair Coliseum 1955-1962 folded
Toledo-Marion Mercurys Toledo, Ohio & Marion, Ohio Toledo Sports Arena &Veterans Memorial Coliseum (Marion) 1955-1956 abandon Marion, Ohio revert to Toledo Mercurys name
Toledo Mercurys Toledo, Ohio Toledo Sports Arena 1956-1959 split between Toledo and St. Louis for 1959-60 season; renamed Toledo-St. Louis Mercurys
Huntington Hornets Huntington, West Virginia Veterans Memorial Fieldhouse 1956-1957 relocated to Louisville, Kentucky; renamed Louisville Rebels
Louisville Rebels Louisville, Kentucky Louisville Gardens 1957-1960 folded
Denver Mavericks Denver, Colorado Denver Coliseum 1959-1959 relocated to Minneapolis, Minnesota December 3, 1959; renamed Minneapolis Millers
Milwaukee Falcons Milwaukee, Wisconsin Milwaukee Arena 1959-1960 ceased operations November 26, 1960
Omaha Knights Omaha, Nebraska Ak-Sar-Ben Coliseum 1959-1963 joined Central Professional Hockey League
St. Paul Saints St. Paul, Minnesota St. Paul Auditorium 1959-1963 joined Central Professional Hockey League as St. Paul Rangers
Toledo-St. Louis Mercurys Toledo, Ohio & St. Louis, Missouri Toledo Sports Arena & St. Louis Arena 1959-1960 abandon St. Louis
Minneapolis Millers Minneapolis, Minnesota Minneapolis Arena 1959-1963 joined Central Professional Hockey League as Minneapolis Bruins
Muskegon Zephyrs Muskegon, Michigan LC Walker Arena 1960-1965 renamed Muskegon Mohawks
Toledo Mercurys Toledo, Ohio Toledo Sports Arena 1960-1962 folded
Port Huron Flags Port Huron, Michigan McMorran Arena 1962-1971 renamed Port Huron Wings
Chatham Maroons Chatham, Ontario Chatham Memorial Arena 1963-1964 folded
Des Moines Oak Leafs Urbandale, Iowa Des Moines Ice Arena 1963-1972 renamed Des Moines Capitols
Toledo Blades Toledo, Ohio Toledo Sports Arena 1963-1970 renamed Toledo Hornets
Windsor Bulldogs Windsor, Ontario Windsor Arena 1963-1964 folded
Dayton Gems Dayton, Ohio Hara Arena 1964-1977 relocated to Grand Rapids December 3. 1977; renamed Grand Rapids Owls
Muskegon Mohawks Muskegon, Michigan LC Walker Arena 1965-1984 renamed Muskegon Lumberjacks
Columbus Checkers Columbus, Ohio Ohio Expo Center Coliseum 1966-1970 team went on hiatus for 1970-71; return as Columbus Golden Seals
Flint Generals Flint, Michigan IMA Sports Arena 1969-1985 relocated to Saginaw, Michigan; renamed Saginaw Generals
Toledo Hornets Toledo, Ohio Toledo Sports Arena 1970-1974 relocated to Lansing, Michigan; renamed Lansing Lancers
Columbus Golden Seals Columbus, Ohio Ohio Expo Center Coliseum 1971-1973 renamed Columbus Owls
Port Huron Wings Port Huron, Michigan McMorran Arena 1971-1974 renamed Port Huron Flags
Des Moines Capitols Urbandale, Iowa Des Moines Ice Arena 1972-1975 folded
Saginaw Gears (IHL) Saginaw, Michigan Saginaw Civic Center 1972-1983 folded
Columbus Owls Columbus, Ohio Ohio Expo Center Coliseum 1973-1977 relocated to Dayton, Ohio; renamed Dayton Owls
Kalamazoo Wings (1974-2000) Kalamazoo, Michigan Wings Stadium 1974-1995 renamed Michigan K-Wings
Lansing Lancers Lansing, Michigan Metro Ice Arena 1974-1975 folded January 15, 1975
Port Huron Flags Port Huron, Michigan McMorran Arena 1974-1981 folded
Toledo Goaldiggers Toledo, Ohio Toledo Sports Arena 1974-1986 foleded
Dayton Owls Dayton, Ohio Hara Arena 1977-1977 relocated December 3, 1977 to Grand Rapids, Michigan; renamed Grand Rapids Owls
Milwakee Admirals Milwaukee, Wisconsin Milwaukee Arena 1977-2001 joined American Hockey League
Grand Rapids Owls Grand Rapids, Michigan Grand Rapids Stadium 1977-1980 joined Continental Hockey League (1972-1986)
Dayton Gems (1964–1980) Dayton, Ohio Hara Arena 1979-1980 folded
Peoria Prancers Peoria, Illinois Peoria Civic Center 1982-1984 renamed Peoria Rivermen (IHL)
Indianapolis Checkers Indianapolis, Indiana Market Square Arena 1984-1987 folded
Muskegon Lumberjacks (1984-1992) Muskegon, Michigan LC Walker Arena 1984-1992 relocated to Richfield, Ohio; renamed Cleveland Lumberjacks
Peoria Rivermen (IHL) Peoria, Illinois Peoria Civic Center 1984-1996 relocated to San Antonio; renamed San Antonio Dragons
Salt Lake Golden Eagles Salt Lake City, Utah Salt Palace & Delta Center 1984-1994 relocated to Auburn Hills, Michigan; renamed Detroit Vipers
Flint Spirits Flint, Michigan IMA Sports Arena 1985-1990 relocated to Fort Wayne, Indiana; renamed Fort Wayne Komets
Saginaw Generals Saginaw, Michigan Saginaw Civic Center 1985-1987 renamed Saginaw Hawks
Colorado Rangers Denver, Colorado Denver Coliseum 1987-1988 renamed Denver Rangers
Saginaw Hawks Saginaw, Michigan Saginaw Civic Center 1987-1989 folded
Denver Rangers Denver, Colorado Denver Coliseum 1988-1989 folded
Indianapolis Ice Indianapolis, Indiana Indiana State Fair Coliseum, Market Square Arena, & Pan American Arena 1988-1999 folded
Phoenix Roadrunners (IHL) Phoenix, Arizona Arizona Veterans Memorial Coliseum 1989-1997 folded
Albany Choppers Albany, New York Knickerbocker Arena 1990-1991 folded February 14, 1991
Fort Wayne Komets Fort Wayne, Indiana Allen County War Memorial Coliseum 1990-1999 folded; replace by United Hockey League team
Kansas City Blades Kansas City, Missouri Kemper Arena 1990-2001 fold with league
San Diego Gulls (1990-1995) San Diego, California San Diego Sports Arena 1990-1995 relocated to Los Angeles, California; renamed Los Angeles Ice Dogs
Atlanta Knights Atlanta, Georgia The Omni 1992-1996 relocated to Quebec City; renamed Quebec Rafales
Cincinnati Cyclones Cincinnati, Ohio Cincinnati Gardens and Riverfront Coliseum 1992-2001 fold with league
Cleveland Lumberjacks Richfield, Ohio Richfield Coliseum 1992-2001 fold with league
Las Vegas Thunder Las Vegas, Nevada Thomas & Mack Center 1993-1999 folded
Russian Penguins Road Team N/A 1993-1994 Touring team; played each team once
Chicago Wolves Rosemont, Illinois Rosemont Horizon 1994-2001 join American Hockey League
Denver Grizzlies Denver, Colorado McNichols Sports Arena 1994-1995 relocated to Salt Lake City; renamed Utah Grizzlies (1995–2005)
Detroit Vipers Auburn Hills, Michigan Palace of Auburn Hills 1994-2001 fold with league
Houston Aeros (1994–2013) Houston, Texas The Summit (Houston) 1994-2001 join American Hockey League
Minnesota Moose St. Paul, Minnesota St. Paul Civic Center 1994-1996 folded
Soviet Wings Road Team N/A 1994-1995 Touring team; played each team once
Los Angeles Ice Dogs Los Angeles, California Los Angeles Memorial Sports Arena 1995-1996 relocated to Long Beach, California; renamed Long Beach Ice Dogs
Michigan K-Wings Kalamazoo Wings Wings Stadium 1995-2000 withdrew to join United Hockey League
Orlando Solar Bears (IHL) Orlando, Florida TD Waterhouse Centre 1995-2001 fold with league
San Francisco Spiders Daly City, California Cow Palace 1995-1996 folded
Utah Grizzlies (1995-2005) Salt Lake City, Utah Delta Center & E Center 1995-2001 fold with league
Grand Rapids Griffins Grand Rapids, Michigan Van Andel Arena 1996-2001 join American Hockey League
Long Beach Ice Dogs Long Beach, California Long Beach Arena 1996-2000 join West Coast Hockey League
Manitoba Moose Winnipeg, Manitoba Winnipeg Arena 1996-2001 join American Hockey League
Quebec Rafales Quebec City, Quebec Colisee de Quebec 1996-1998 folded
San Antonio Dragons San Antonio, Texas Freeman Coliseum 1996-1998 folded

Franchise timeline with moves

Team name(s) Years of
Number of
1945 Detroit Auto Club 1945–1951 6  
1945 Detroit Bright's Goodyears 1945–1949 4  
1945 Windsor Gotfredsons
Windsor Staffords
Windsor Ryan Cretes
1945 Windsor Spitfires
Windsor Hettche Spitfires
Detroit Hettche
1946 Detroit Metal Mouldings
Detroit Jerry Lynch
1947 Toledo Mercurys 1947–1949
14 Played in North and South divisions (1948–1949).
Played as Toledo Buckeyes (EAHL) (1949–50).
Played as Toledo-Marion Mercurys (1955–1956).
Played as Toledo-St. Louis Mercurys (1959–1960).
1948 Akron Americans 1948–1949 1  
1948 Louisville Blades 1948–1949 1 Transferred to USHL in 1949.
1948 Milwaukee Clarks 1948–1949 1 Transferred to EAHL in 1949.
1948 Muncie Flyers 1948–1949 1  
1949 Sarnia Sailors 1949–1951 2 Transferred to OHA Sr. A in 1951.
1949 Chatham Maroons 1949–1952
4 Played in OHA Sr. A (1952–1963).
1950 Grand Rapids Rockets
Huntington Hornets
Louisville Rebels
1951 Troy Bruins 1951–1959 8  
1952 Cincinnati Mohawks 1952–1958 6 Transferred from AHL in 1952.
1952 Fort Wayne Komets
Albany Choppers
39 Original Fort Wayne Komets replaced in 1990 by relocated Flint Spirits franchise.
1952 Milwaukee Chiefs 1952–1954 2  
1953 Johnstown Jets 1953–1955 2 Transferred from EAHL in 1953
Transferred to EHL in 1955.
1953 Louisville Shooting Stars 1953–1954 1  
1953 Marion Barons 1953–1954 1  
1955 Indianapolis Chiefs 1955–1962 7  
1959 Milwaukee Falcons 1959–1960 2 Ceased operations November 26, 1960 during second season.
1959 Denver Mavericks
Minneapolis Millers
4 Denver relocated mid-season to Minneapolis on December 3, 1959.
1959 Omaha Knights 1959–1963 4 Transferred to Central Professional Hockey League in 1963.
1959 St. Paul Saints 1959–1963 4  
1960 Muskegon Zephyrs
Muskegon Mohawks
Muskegon Lumberjacks
Cleveland Lumberjacks
1962 Port Huron Flags
Port Huron Wings
Port Huron Flags
1963 Des Moines Oak Leafs
Des Moines Capitols
1963 Toledo Blades
Toledo Hornets
Lansing Lancers
1963 Windsor Bulldogs 1963–1964 1 Transferred from OHA Sr. A in 1963.
1964 Dayton Gems 1964–1977
14 Team on hiatus from 1977–1979.
1966 Columbus Checkers
Columbus Golden Seals
Columbus Owls
Dayton Owls
Grand Rapids Owls
23 Franchise on hiatus from 1970–71. Dayton relocated mid-season to Grand Rapids on December 15, 1977.
1969 Flint Generals
Saginaw Generals
Saginaw Hawks
1972 Saginaw Gears 1972–1983 11  
1974 Kalamazoo Wings
Michigan K-Wings
1974 Toledo Goaldiggers
Kansas City Blades
1977 Milwaukee Admirals 1977–2001 24 Transferred from USHL in 1977.
Transferred to AHL in 2001.
1982 Peoria Prancers
Peoria Rivermen
San Antonio Dragons
1984 Salt Lake Golden Eagles
Detroit Vipers
17 Transferred from CHL in 1984.
1984 Indianapolis Checkers
Colorado Rangers
Denver Rangers
Phoenix Roadrunners
13 Transferred from CHL in 1984.
1985 Flint Spirits
Fort Wayne Komets
14 Transferred to UHL in 1999.
1988 Indianapolis Ice 1988–1999 11 Transferred to CHL in 1999.
1990 San Diego Gulls
Los Angeles Ice Dogs
Long Beach Ice Dogs
10 Transferred to WCHL in 2000.
1992 Atlanta Knights
Quebec Rafales
1992 Cincinnati Cyclones 1992–2001 9  
1993 Las Vegas Thunder 1993–1999 6  
1993 Russian Penguins 1993–1994 1 Touring Russian team.
1994 Chicago Wolves 1994–2001 7 Transferred to AHL in 2001.
1994 Houston Aeros 1994–2001 7 Transferred to AHL in 2001.
1994 Minnesota Moose
Manitoba Moose
7 Transferred to AHL in 2001.
1994 Denver Grizzlies
Utah Grizzlies
7 Transferred to AHL in 2001.
1995 Orlando Solar Bears 1995–2001 6  
1995 San Francisco Spiders 1995–1996 1  
1996 Grand Rapids Griffins 1996–2001 5 Transferred to AHL in 2001.

See also


  1. "League's founding father watches over 50th year," David Eminian, The Hockey News, January 27, 1995.
  2. "Ufer trying to sell league on structured salary cap," David Eminian, The Hockey News, November 10, 1995.
  3. NHL Teams' Payrolls. Retrieved on 2006-11-23.
  4. "The Modern Minors," Eric Zweig, p. 381, in Total Hockey, ed. Dan Diamond, Total Sports, 1998.

External links

This page uses content from Wikipedia. The original article was at International Hockey League (1945–2001). The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with Ice Hockey Wiki, the text of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License 3.0 (Unported) (CC-BY-SA).