Anyang Halla
Anyang Halla logo.gif
City: Anyang, South Korea
League: Asia League
Founded: 1994
Home Arena: Anyang Sports Complex Arena
Colors: Blue, yellow and white
Owner(s): The Halla Group
General Manager: Yang Seung-jun
Head Coach: Shim Eui-sik
Captain: Kim Woo-jae
Franchise history
1994 - 1997: Mando Winia
1997 - 2004: Halla Winia
2004 - present: Anyang Halla
Playoff Championships: Korean Ice Hockey League: 1996, 1997, 1998, 2001 and 2003
Asia League: 2010.

The Anyang Halla are a professional ice hockey team based in Anyang City in Gyeonggi-do, South Korea. They are one of the founding and current members of the Asia League Ice Hockey (AL).[1] Formed in 1994, they are the oldest professional ice hockey team, and one of only two professional teams, in South Korea. The Halla Group contributes three billion won annually to run the club.[2]

At its inception the team was based out of Mok-dong, Seoul and named the Mando Winia. In 1998 the team took the name of Mando's parent company, Halla. After the collapse of the Korean Ice Hockey League in 2003 they were the only team to survive. They joined four Japanese teams to create the new Asia League Ice Hockey. In 2005 the team relocated and took the name of their new hometown as their own, playing all current home games out of the Anyang Sports Complex Arena. After two years of finishing in 5th place, they became the first non-Japanese team to finish first in the regular season in 2008–2009. However, they failed to defeat the Nippon Paper Cranes in the semi-finals. In the following season Halla again finished in first and managed to win the semi-final and final series giving them their first play-off series win and first Asia League Championship.

The city of Anyang was named 'The Best Hockeytown' twice, in 2006 & 2010.

Team history[edit | edit source]

1994–2003: pre-Asia League Ice Hockey[edit | edit source]

The team was originally founded in 1994 by the Halla Group to help promote hockey in Korea. The Halla Group also felt that by creating an ice hockey team, it would help them to fulfill their role as a responsible corporation by providing something to the community.[3] The team was originally named "Mando Winia". It was so named because Mando is a subsidiary company of Halla and Winia is a brand of air conditioner sold by the company.[4]

As a member of the Korean Ice Hockey League the team won the championship five times. During this time, the team also changed their name from "Mando Winia" to "Halla Winia".[5] The team first looked at adding foreign players to their roster in late 2001 with other members of the Korean League.[6] In 2003, the team was one of the founding members of Asia League Ice Hockey.

2003–Present: Asia League Ice Hockey[edit | edit source]

While the team participates primarily in the Asia League, they also play in tournaments like the All Korea Ice Hockey Championship each year.[7] In the inaugural year of Asia League Ice Hockey, Halla played a shortened seasons of only 16 games, and failed to break .500. In the following year they brought Esa Tikkanen, a veteran player of 20 NHL seasons, on board. He was brought on primarily to coach the players but he also played during the team's games. Tikkanen felt that as the players played against more skilled teams their own skill level showed greater improvement. He also felt that they should play more games and that the season was too short.[8] That year the team was also noted for showing great improvement over the first year's effort.[9] Halla finished the season winning 18 games out of 42 with 5 ties. Their top offensive player, Marco Poulsen, finished 5th in the overall points race,[10] however they didn't reach their goal that year of making the playoffs,[11] finishing in 5th place one spot out of the playoffs. In the off-season the team changed their name from Anyang Halla Winia to Anyang Halla with the expiration of the sponsorship contract. As well they hired Otakar Vejvoda to be the team's new coach.[12] Vejvoda was considered a legend in the Czech Extraliga both for his skill as a player and a coach.[13]

In the 2005–2006 season Halla improved on the previous year's performance finishing in second place. The league saw a reduced season of only 38 games. Song Dong-Hwan was the leader in goals for the league with 31 and Patrik Martinec ranked 2nd in assists with 44. Martinec ranked number 2 on the total points list while Song finished in fourth place.[14] Halla also scored the most short handed goals of any team in the league with 11.[15] The city of Anyang won an award for being "The best Hockey Town in Asia".[16] The team made the play-offs for the first time since the league's formation. They received a bye in the first round and played Kokudo, the winner of the 3rd place and 6th place match-up. Anyang managed to win only a single game out of the first three which were played on home ice. They were eliminated in the 4th game which was played in Kokudo's home rink by a score of 5–1.[17] Kokudo went on to be the league champions for the second year in a row.

After the conclusion of the '05–'06 season there were some roster changes. Two of the team's top players, Song Dong-Hwan and Jang Jong-Moon, had to report for compulsory military service. Starting goaltender, Kim Sung-Bae, retired after the previous season. Even though they were missing these players they were noted for having more players with more than 10 goals and 10 assists than in the previous season.[18] With the departure of Song offensive output dropped slightly, the team's top offensive player finished 7th overall in goals with 21. However Martinec won the assists race with 53 and the overall points total with 71.[19] The team shared top spot in the short handed goals with 2 other teams scoring 10 over the course of the season.[20] With a further shortened season of only 34 games the team finished in 5th place and faced the other Korean team, Kangwon Land in the quarter finals. During the regular season Kangwon won 6 of 7 meetings, and the quarter finals were no different. Kangwon swept Halla in 3 games, the final game ending in 3–2 with a last minute desperate bid by Halla to tie the game.[21]

Anyang Halla pose for a celebratory photo after defeating High1 on January 25, 2009

The next season saw the AL further reduce the amount of games played to just 30. In the pre-season Halla won the Anyang Cup, which is a pre-season tournament held in Anyang.[22] The team's record in the regular season remained relatively the same and they finished again in 5th place. Lee Yu-Won was the top offensive player with 16 goals and was tied for 4th place with 3 other players. Martinec continued to contribute many assists to the team and finished in second place with 29, one point off first. He finished in 4th place in the overall point totals. Halla did not have another player in the top 10.[23] The team once again lead the league in short handed goals and gave up the fewest short handed goals against along with the Oji Eagles.[24] In the playoffs the Halla faced the Nippon Paper Cranes in the first round. During the regular season the two teams split their series each winning 2 games. The playoffs told a different story and Nippon swept Halla in 3 games. Halla lost each game by a single goal. Vejvoda praised Nippon's goalie for his excellent play and commended his players for their effort.[22]

Following the defeat in the post-season Halla replaced Vejvoda as head coach with Shim Eui-Sik. Shim had spent his entire professional career playing for Halla and during the 2007–2008 season he was the coach of Little Halla. As a player Shim had 30 points in 80 games. He vowed to reorganize the team and set his sights on a league championship.[25] The team's general manager also hired Samuel H. Kim, then an analyst for SBS Sports and previously an NHL reporter from Vancouver, as a scout for the organization. Halla moved away from the heavy Czech influence which had previously dominated the team and filled 3 of the 4 spots for foreign players on the team with players from North America. Brock Radunske, Brad Fast and Jon Awe became the first three players from North America to play for the team. They also arranged for Eric Thurston, the head coach of University of Alberta's team, to spend the first 3 weeks of the training camp assisting the new coach and new North American players. Martinec was the only Czech player to remain on the team. In addition to the new foreigner players Song Dong-Hwan and Jang Jong-Moon returned from military service.[26] In the 2008 pre-season Anyang Cup, Halla finished 4th out of 5 teams.[27] The AL increased the number of regular season games for the 2008–2009 season to 36. In September head coach Shim was suspended for 5 games for refusal to play. The incident stemmed from a goal that was scored as the final buzzer sounded during a September 21 game against High1. Halla entered the dressing room and refused to return to the ice. The league considered the game a forfeit.[28][29] Anyang Halla finished the season in first place with a total of 76 points. Their defeat of their rivals High1 in the final game of the season marks the first time a non-Japanese team had finished first place in the Asia League.[30] Brock Radunske captured the titles for both the most goals scored with 29 and most points on the season with 57. Martinec finished in second place for the second year in a row in the assists category with 47. Overall the team finished with 5 players in the top 10 in the overall points tally.[31] For the first time the team ended the season with the number one powerplay scoring 54 goals. In contrast to earlier seasons the team did not lead the league in short handed goals, ranking in the middle of the pack both in goals for and against.[32] They were the only team not shutout during the regular season.[33] After receiving a bye in the first round of the play-offs Halla had to face the Nippon Paper Cranes in the semi-final. They returned to Anyang for game 6 of the series leading 3–2. They were expected to win the series but Nippon's Ilmura scored two game winning goals and the Japanese club defeated Anyang in 7 games.[34]

Halla opened the 2009–10 season with a loss on home ice, but at the mid-point of the season they were tied for first place with the Oji Eagles.[35] The league maintained the number of games at 36. The first half of the season saw Halla plagued with injuries. Particularly hard hit were the team's foreign imports. After the third game of the season John Awe was diagnosed with a sports hernia that required surgery and was scheduled to miss 8–12 weeks.[36] On November 29, Brad Fast received a knee injury that will sideline him for 4–6 months, ending his season. Brock Radunske was also on the injury list with a concussion, while Patrik Martinec was day to day with a lower-body injury. Halla replaced Awe quickly with Dustin Wood, who has played in both the American Hockey League and Deutsche Eishockey Liga. Fast was replaced by Lee Don-ku from Yonsei University. Halla also had several other regular players injured including Kim Won-jun, Kim Kyu-hun, and Lee Seung-yup.[37] After 18 games Halla led the league with 94 goals.[35] On January 31, 2010 Halla defeated the Oji Eagles in overtime by a score of 4-3 clinching first place for the second year in a row. The win also set-up a semi-final match-up against Korean rivals High1, guaranteeing that a Korean team would appear in the final for the first time in league history.[38] Halla won all of their series against opposing teams, except against their rival High1. Of 18 possible points available in their six games series, Halla took only eight. They were the only team to win a series against the Nippon Paper Cranes. The team led the league in goals scored with 180.[39] Individually, Kim Ki-sung led the team in goals scored with 22, while Patrik Martinec again led with 40 assists and 51 points.[40] Halla finished with five players in the top ten point list.[41] The team also led in both powerplay goals for, with 57, powerplay percentage, with 34.97%, and shorthanded goals for, with 10.[42] In the annual end of season Awards, Patrik Martinec took the award for Most Valuable Player and Best Playmaking. Cho Min-ho took the award for Young Guy of the Year. Anyang city won the award for Best Hockey Town for the second time for their spirit and sell-out crowds.[43][44] Anyang Halla defeated High1 by a score of 5-2 to win the semi-finals three games to one winning their first play-off series and becoming the first Korean team to play for the Championship Cup.[45] Halla faced the Cranes, who had knocked them out of the playoffs twice, in the final. The series went to the full five games and four of the games went to overtime. Brock Radunske scored two overtime winners and assisted Kim Woo-Jae in scoring the overtime winner in game five making Halla the first non-Japanese team to win the Asia League Championship.[46] Radunske was named MVP while head coach Shim was named "Coach of the Year".[47] After retiring as a player, Martinec signed a 1-year deal to work as an assistant coach on the team.[48]

Community contributions[edit | edit source]

As a team and organization the Halla have engaged in charitable work. In 2008 they had two charity games on December 27 and 28. The admission fee was waved and instead fans were asked to make donations. The proceeds were donated to the poor children of Anyang city as well as the sick children's hospital.[49][50] From mid-November 2008 to mid-January 2009 the team gave free tickets to any students who took the College Scholastic Ability Test (CSAT) to promote rest and comfort after the difficult exam.[51] In 2009 Halla repeated the offer to students who took the CSAT and offered free admission from early December 2009 to early February 2010.[52] On December 19, 2009 The Anyang Halla organization donated 20,000 won for each goal that had been scored in the season to charity, totaling just over 2 million won.[53]

Media[edit | edit source]

The Anyang Halla Hockey Club launched a new radio broadcast deal in 2007 with[54] Former Halla forward Bae Sang-wun calls the play-by-play, and he is joined with colour commentary by Samuel H. Kim. Former hockey player Oh Sol-gil is currently the main TV commentator for the Anyang Halla.[26] On May 11, 2009, SBSsports acquired a 5 year broadcast contract with the club.[55]

Arena[edit | edit source]

Anyang Spoarts Complex Arena, showing ice, far side seats and home bench

The Anyang Sports Complex Arena (Hangul: 안양종합운동장 빙상장) was opened November 24, 2000. It seats 1284 in the hockey arena.[56] The Arena also contains a basketball court and is home to the Anyang KT&G Kites professional team. It has seating for 6690. The ice rink is also used for short track and figure skating among other sports.[57] The team previously used the Mok-dong Ice Rink.[58]

Team colors and mascots[edit | edit source]

[edit | edit source]

The Anyang Halla logo features a black triangle in the background surrounded by a white and black border. A growling polar bear is shown protruding from the top half of the triangle and underneath the team name "Halla" is shown in stylized gold letters. Below the team name is a semicircular shape which contains the city name "Anyang" in white letters on a blue background.

Jerseys[edit | edit source]

Comparison of past Winia jerseys with Current Halla jerseys

As the team changed its name from the Winia to the Halla the uniforms had minor changes made to them. The logo changed names and the uniforms had colored shoulders removed from them. The current home jerseys feature a solid blue background with yellow stripes on the cuffs and bottom of the body as well as a number of blue rough shapes behind the gold trim as well as sponsor logos on the shoulders. The away jerseys feature a solid white background with dark blue striped borders on the cuffs and bottom of the body, it also contains the same rough blue shapes behind the trim. The Halla put the first name of Korean players on the jerseys to avoid confusion as several players share the same family name.[59]

Mascots[edit | edit source]

The teams mascots are a male and female polar bear. The male polar bear wears the Halla home jersey and the female polar bear wears the away jersey. She also wears a white skirt and has red eyes. No name has been released for either of the polar bears.[60]

Honours[edit | edit source]

  • Korean Hockey League:
    • Winners (5): 1996, 1997, 1998, 2001, 2003[61]
  • Korea Domestic Champion:
    • Winners (2): 2005, 2009[62]
  • Asia League:
    • Winners (1): 2010
  • The Best Hockeytown:
    • Winners (2): 2006, 2010

Halla logo.gif

Current roster[edit | edit source]

Updated July 5, 20010[63]

Lee Kwon-Jae stretching prior to the 3rd period of the November 16, 2008 game vs the China Sharks

# Country Player Catches Acquired Place of Birth
31 Flag of South Korea Eum Hyun-seung L 2010 South Korea
29 Flag of South Korea Yoo Sung-Je L 2009 Seoul, South Korea
41 Flag of South Korea Kim Jung-Moo L 2009 Seoul, South Korea
# Country Player Shoots Acquired Place of Birth
2 Flag of the United States Jon Awe R 2008 Memphis, United States
3 Flag of Japan Takayuki Ono R 2009 Tomakomai, Japan
5 Flag of South Korea Kim Woo-jaeC R 2002 Seoul, South Korea
14 Flag of South Korea Kim Yoon-hwan R 2010 South Korea
20 Flag of South Korea Hong Hyun-mok R 2009 Incheon, South Korea
23 Flag of Canada Dustin Wood L 2009 Scarborough, Canada
27 Flag of Canada Brad FastA L 2008 Fort St. John, Canada
58 Flag of South Korea Lee Seung-yup R 2006 Incheon, South Korea
61 Flag of South Korea Lee Don-ku L 2009 Seoul, South Korea
# Country Player Position Shoots Acquired Place of Birth
1 Flag of South Korea Kim Ki-sung LW L 2008 Seoul, South Korea
6 Flag of South Korea Kim Hong-il C R 2003 Bucheon, South Korea
8 Flag of South Korea Kim Won-jungA RW R 2006 Seoul, South Korea
10 Flag of South Korea Jung Byung-cheon RW R 2009 Seoul, South Korea
11 Flag of South Korea Lee Yu-won LW R 2006 Seoul, South Korea
13 Flag of South Korea Baek Min-Chul C R 2009 Seoul, South Korea
16 Flag of South Korea Lee Kwon-jae RW R 2007 Seoul, South Korea
17 Flag of South Korea Kim Kyu-hun C L 2007 Seoul, South Korea
25 Flag of Canada Brock Radunske C/LW L 2008 Kitchener, Canada
36 Flag of South Korea Park Woo-sang C R 2008 Seoul, South Korea
71 Flag of South Korea Sin Sang-woo W L 2010 South Korea
87 Flag of South Korea Cho Min-ho C R 2009 Seoul, South Korea
88 Flag of South Korea Kim Geun-ho LW R 2006 Seoul, South Korea
89 Flag of South Korea Kim Han-sung W R 2004 Seoul, South Korea
96 Flag of South Korea Song Dong-hwan RW R 2003 Seoul, South Korea

Leaders[edit | edit source]

Team captains[edit | edit source]

Head coaches[edit | edit source]

Year-by-year record[edit | edit source]

Anyang Halla (AL Hockey 2003–2010)[edit | edit source]

complete records for previous seasons[64]

Season GP W W(OT) W(GWS)* T L(GWS)* L(OT) L GF GA PTS Finish Playoffs
2003–04 16 5 1 0 0 10 45 86 17 3rd/5 No Playoffs due to shortened season
2004–05 42 17 1 5 1 18 152 140 59 5th/8 Out of Playoffs
2005–06 38 25 0 0 3 10 164 100 78 2nd/9 Lost in Semifinals
2006–07 34 16 0 2 1 15 146 117 51 5th/8 Lost in Quarterfinals
2007–08 30 13 1 2 1 13 93 92 44 5th/7 Lost in Quarterfinals
2008–09 36 22 1 2 2 2 7 150 105 76 1st/7 Lost in Semifinals
2009–10 36 23 2 1 3 1 6 180 109 79 1st/7 Won Championship

*prior to the 2008–2009 season, there were no shoot-outs and games ended in a tie

Past import players[edit | edit source]

Prior to the 2008–2009 season Halla drew most of their imports from the Czech Republic, including their head coach of 3 seasons.[13]

Retired numbers[edit | edit source]

  • 91 Shim Eui-sik (1994–2006) was the Korean League MVP 5 times and held the record for most career goals and career points. He spent his entire professional career with Halla. He said after his retirement that he hoped to have the chance to coach Halla in the future.[65]


References[edit | edit source]

  1. Claude Leblanc (11 March 2005). Les hockeyeurs asiatiques veulent briser la glace. Courrier international. Retrieved on 11 January 2009.
  2. Kim Jae-won (25 February 2009). Anyang Hall: Prince of Asian Hockey. Korea Times. Retrieved on 20 September 2009.
  3. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named hallacorp
  4. Anyang Halla Team Guide. Retrieved on 11 January 2009.
  5. Anyang Halla History. Retrieved on 11 January 2009.
  6. Gang Ho-cheol (13 December 2001). Ice Hockey League Looks to Foreign Players. Chosun. Retrieved on 11 January 2009.
  7. 김성원 (7 November 2008). 종합아이스하키선수권 하이원 3연패 '빙판의 무적함대']. Chosun. Retrieved on 20 January 2009. “News story noting Halla's participation in 63rd All Korean Hockey Championship”
  8. Jim Armstrong (17 January 2005). Tikkanen hits the ice in South Korea. Associated Press. Retrieved on 12 January 2009.
  9. Andrew Mitchell (26 November 2004). Asia League more than just a bunch of hockey hullabaloo. Asahi. Retrieved on 12 January 2009.
  10. Point Ranking 2004-2005 season. Retrieved on 18 January 2009.
  11. Esa Tikkanen's indecipherable hockey journey continues in South Korea. The Asian Pacific Post (9 December 2004). Retrieved on 12 January 2009.
  12. "News Release" (8 July 2005). Retrieved on 18 January 2009.
  13. 13.0 13.1 Bill Meltzer (19 December 2007). Asia League: Korean clubs aim to break Japanese dominance. Retrieved on 19 January 2009.
  14. Point Ranking 2005-2006 season. Retrieved on 18 January 2009.
  15. PP SH Ranking 2005-2006 season. Retrieved on 18 January 2009.
  16. 구단연혁 Team History (Korean). Retrieved on 18 January 2009.
  17. KOKUDO defeated ANYANG HALLA and advances to the Final!!. (15 March 2006). Retrieved on 18 January 2009.
  18. News Release: Get ready for the playoff games!! 【Anyang Halla】What has happened to the Korean power house!?. (30 January 2007). Retrieved on 19 January 2009.
  19. Point Ranking 2006-2007 Season. Retrieved on 19 January 2009.
  20. PP SH Ranking 2006-2007 Season. Retrieved on 19 January 2009.
  21. Kangwon Land sweeps Anyang Halla and now going to play against Cranes!!. Retrieved on 19 January 2009.
  22. 22.0 22.1 News Release: Oji Paper and Cranes sweep to Semifinal. (21 February 2008). Retrieved on 19 January 2009.
  23. Point Ranking 2007-2008 season. Retrieved on 19 January 2008.
  24. PP SH Ranking 2007-2008. Retrieved on 19 January 2009.
  25. Anyang Halla announces its new head coach. (24 April 2008). Retrieved on 19 January 2008.
  26. 26.0 26.1 Bill Meltzer (30 July 2008). New-look Anyang Halla adds western flavor. Retrieved on 19 January 2008.
  27. EAGLES won the Anyang Cup 2008. (8 September 2008). Retrieved on 19 January 2009.
  28. HALLA Avengers. (11 November 2009). Retrieved on 8 December 2009.
  29. AL News Release. (3 October 2008). Archived from the original on 10 October 2008. Retrieved on 19 January 2009.
  30. Halla, Clinch Top Spot in AL. (26 January 2009). Retrieved on 8 December 2009.
  31. Point Ranking 2008-2009. Retrieved on 26 January 2009.
  32. PP SH Ranking 2008-2009 Season. Retrieved on 26 January 2009.
  33. Scores/Game sheet. Retrieved on 26 January 2009.
  34. So Close !. (9 March 2009). Retrieved on 31 July 2009.
  35. 35.0 35.1 Game sheets. Retrieved on 7 December 2009.
  36. The Big Tuna, Out with Sport Hernia. (27 September 2009). Retrieved on 8 December 2009.
  37. Injuries Hurting Halla, facing Cranes at Home. Anyang Halla (3 December 2009). Retrieved on 7 December 2009.
  38. HALLA ClINCH THE TOP SPOT. (31 January 2010). Retrieved on 31 January 2010.
  39. Standings. Retrieved on 5 March 2010.
  40. 2009-2010/Regular Individual Records. Retrieved on 5 March 2010.
  41. 2009-2010/Regular Point Ranking. Retrieved on 5 March 2010.
  42. 2009-2010/Regular PP - SH Ranking. Retrieved on 5 March 2010.
  43. AL 2009-2010 Awards!. (1 March 2010). Retrieved on 5 March 2010.
  44. 김경주 (12 March 2010). 하키타운 안양. XportsNews. Retrieved on 12 March 2010.
  45. "Official Game Sheet". (17 March 2010). Retrieved on 17 March 2010.
  46. Asia League Ice Hockey 2009-2010 / Play-off Scores Game Sheet. Retrieved on 28 March 2010.
  47. MIRACLE ON ICE. (28 March 2010). Retrieved on 28 March 2010.
  48. Martinec, Joins Halla Bench. (24 June 2010). Retrieved on 22 July 2010.
  49. HIGH1, Spoiled the party. (28 December 2008). Retrieved on 20 January 2009.
  50. HALLA, looking to extend winning streak to 8 & 9. (27 December 2008). Retrieved on 20 January 2009.
  51. 수능 수험생 무료관람 안내. (12 November 2008). Retrieved on 7 December 2009.
  52. 수험생을 위한 '무료 입장'. Retrieved on 8 December 2009.
  53. 12월 19일 "몰래산타"와 함께 하는 모금 행사!. (18 December 2009). Retrieved on 20 December 2009.
  54. 김윤구 (2 October 2007). 아이스하키 한라, 전 홈 경기 인터넷 중계. Retrieved on 18 January 2009.
  55. Halla Announce 2009-2010 Regular Season Sked. (30 July 2009). Retrieved on 31 July 2009.
  56. Anyang Halla Home. Retrieved on 11 January 2009.
  57. Sports Facilities. Retrieved on 11 January 2009.
  58. Ines Cho; Joe Yong-hee (3 January 2003). Have an ice day!. JoongAng Daily. Retrieved on 11 January 2009.
  59. Geoff McClure (24 April 2006). Eagle who shouldn't be an Eagle. The Age. Retrieved on 11 January 2009.
  60. Anyang Halla Q&A. Retrieved on 18 January 2009.
  61. Team History. Retrieved on 19 September 2009.
  62. Son Earns Shutout as Halla Blank Korea Univeristy [sic] 3-0 on Final. Anyang Halla (12 November 2009). Retrieved on 7 December 2009.
  63. Anyang Halla Roster. Retrieved on 20 January 2009.
  64. Archive Record. Retrieved on 12 January 2009.
  65. 이경재 (3 October 2006). 심의식, 지도자 힘찬 새출발!. YTN. Retrieved on 20 January 2009.

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