These events occured in 1909 in the world of hockey:
February 1909 — the Allan Cup is donated to be the amateur championship hockey trophy of Canada
- March 1909 — Ottawa Hockey Club wins the Eastern Canada Hockey Association (ECHA) championship and the Stanley Cup
- March 1909 — Renfrew Creamery Kings win the Federal Hockey League championship and challenge for the Stanley Cup, but cannot play because the Stanley Cup trustees rule their players are ineligible
- March 1909 — Ottawa Cliffsides win the Inter-Provincial Amateur Hockey Union (IPAHU) and the Allan Cup. The Cliffsides then lose a challenge to Queen's College of Kingston, Ontario.
November 1909 — ECHA disbands over the plans of the Montreal Wanderers to change rinks. Two rival leagues are founded, splitting the top rival team. The Canadian Hockey Association is formed with Ottawa HC and the National Hockey Association (NHA) with the Montreal Wanderers. The NHA is founded by the president of the Renfrew team, who is seeking a chance at the Stanley Cup. The CHA will disband in January 1910, and the NHA takes in Ottawa and Montreal Shamrocks from the CHA.
- NHA inaugurates a new team "Les Canadiens" which is the basis of today's Montreal Canadiens